Monies that are budgeted on a yearly basis; for example Congress may set yearly limits on what agencies can spend.
Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency.
Refers to the tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits their programs confer or the costs they entail.
The ability of congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance without passing a law.
The government offices to which people are appointed on the basis of merit, as ascertained by a written exam or by applying certain selection criteria.
Department of Homeland Security
Federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism.
The extent to which an appointed bureaucracy can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
Provision for appointing federal offices without going through the competitive service.
An informal association of federal agency, congressional committee, and interest group that is said to have heavy influence over policy making.
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power.
National Performance Review
A 1993 effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to make the bureaucracy work better and cost less.
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.
Law that created a Civil Service Commission, 1883, and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Senior Executive Service
Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who worked closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
Funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget.