World History 21-22

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______ emerges as a world leader

Japan emerges as a world leader during WWI on the side of the Allies

Clique

exclusive, elite group (Hideki Tojo - tried to gain territory for Japan)

Sun Yat-sen

leader of the Nationalist Party in China

Chiang Kai-shek

began a military campaign to reunite China under a national government after Sun's death

Mao Zedong

led Communist forces in China agains Chiang Kai-Shek

______ seized Manchuria

Japan seized Manchuria ------> League of Nations does nothing

_______ & _______ work together against Japan

Mao Zedong & Chiang Kai-shek work together against Japan

_______ wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire & invaded _______

Mussolini wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire ------> invades Ethiopia, League of Nations only institutes sanctions, later also took Albania

sanctions

forbidding the sale of certain materials

Third Reich

new German empire under Hitler

Lebensraum

"living space", Hitler rearms Germany, gets out of the League of Nations, violates the Treaty of Versailles

Rome-Berlin Axis

German & Italian alliance, shows support of Francisco Franco of Spanish Civil War, this is practice before WW2

Anti-Comintern Pact

between Germany & Japan, against Russia

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, & Japan

Anschluss

union, Hitler establishes control in Austria

Neville Chamberlain

prime minister of Great Britain who met with Hitler to seek a solution to the Czech crisis, Sudetenland told to join the German Reich but they refuse

Munich Conference

Sudetenland given to Hitler

Daladier

prime minister of France who told Chamberlain to give away the land at the Munich Conference

Appeasement

buying off an aggressor by making concessions, Britain's treatment of Hitler

Winston Churchill

member of the House of Commons who denounced appeasement

Hitler demands the _____ ______ but France & Britain refuse to allow this

Hitler demands the "Polish Corridor" but Britain & France refuse to allow this

Pact of Steel

military alliance between Hitler & Mussolini

Nonaggression Pact

between Germany and Russia, shocks everyone (they were enemies)

September 1, 1939

German forces attack Poland -----> Britain & France declare war on Germany, Poland taken in 4 weeks

Panzer Divisions

armored tanks

Luftwaffe

Germany's powerful & superior air force, later bomb cities & civilians during Hitler's invasion of Great Britain

Blitzkrieg

"lightning war"

______ invades Poland from the east & agrees to divide Poland w/ Germany, later they also take ______

Russia invades Poland & later takes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & parts of Finland

Sitzkrieg

"sitting war", due to the weather

______ is taken in just hours

Denmark is taken in just hours

Fifth Columnists

individuals within a country who secretly aid the enemy by spying, spreading enemy propaganda, & committing sabotage (happened to Norway)

Quisling

most notorious fifth columnist

Maginot Line

underground French defense on the German border

______ bypassed all British & French soldiers by going through heavy fortifications

Germans bypassed all French & British soldiers by going through heavy fortifications

Miracle at Dunkirk

350,000 allied soldiers rescued by more than 800 ships during a fog

Henri Petain

WWI hero who headed the new French government, asked Germany for armistice

Vichy France

new seat of government under Petain

Charles de Gaulle

led the Free French movement against Germany & Vichy France

Mussolini sees Allie trouble & invades _____

Egypt (where Mussolini sees Allie trouble and invades), British push Italy out, take troops & valuable material

Erwin Rommel

brilliant German commander known as the "Desert Fox", sent by Hitler to help Mussolini, later accused of conspiring to kill Hitler in 1944, given a choice of trial or suicide, chooses suicide

______ becomes the new prime minister of Britain

Churchill becomes the new prime minister of Britain

Amphibious

invasion by sea, blockade around the UK

RAF

British Royal Air Force, fewer planes than the Germans, but more advanced b/c of radar

Lend-Lease Act

authorized the President to sell military supplies to any country whose security was important to the US

Atlantic Charter

document setting forth "common principles" on which the US and Britain based their hopes for a better world future

Hitler violated the pact with ______

Stalin, (Hitler violated the pact w/ Stalin for lebensraum ("living space") & natural resources

German attack on Russia fails b/c.....

Russian winters defeat the Germans, scorched-earth policy, Battle for Stalingrad

Hideki Tojo

fanatical militarist who became the dictator of Japan, signs a nonaggression pact w/ Russia

December 7, 1941

Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor crippling the US fleet

famous quotes about the attack on Pearl Harbor

"date which will live in infamy" - Franklin Roosevelt, "sleeping giant" - Japanese admiral Yamamoto

Montgomery

defeated the Germans at North Africa (British)

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

American who landed on the Algerian coast & Sicily, North Africa is won for the Allies

_______ surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees

Italy surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees

partisans

fighters who harass an enemy occupying the territory, capture/kill Mussolini

Casablanca, Morocco meeting

Churchill & Roosevelt want nothing less than "unconditional surrender" by the Axis

Tehran, Iran (summit meeting)

"Big Three" = Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

Operation Overlord

invasion of France by US & Britain, deceived the Germans as to where the attack would be

D-day

the day when the attack is to be launched

June 6, 1944

Eisenhower ordered the attack to proceed on 5 different Normandy beaches, greatest amphibious operation in history

General Douglas MacArthur

American commander who vowed, "I shall return" to the Philippines after surrender to the Japanese (Bataan Death March later occured in the Philippines b/c of Japanese takeover)

_______ take a lot of land = too much for them to cover

Japanese take a lot of land = too much for them to cover

Battle of Coral Sea

keeps Australia away from the Japanese (whole battle is done with planes)

Battle of Midway

put Japan on the defensive for the rest of the war

Banzai charges

war cry shouted by Japanese troops

code talkers

American messages sent in Navajo by Navajos

_______ returns to Philippines ------> Battle of Leyte Gulf

General MacArthur returns to Philippines -----> Battle of Leyte Gulf

Allies capture these 2 islands in the pacific: ____ _____ & ______

Iwo Jima & Okinawa

Battle of the Bulge

wasted much of Germany's strength & hastened the end of the war, last effort by Hitler

Yalta Conference

promised Stalin eastern Europe if he would cooperate

May 8, 1945

V-E Day, Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered unconditionally

Holocaust

German atrocities in concentration camps, death of over 6 million Jews

Postdam Conference

Harry Truman - President after Roosevelt, Clement Attlee - new prime minister after Churchill, issued an ultimatum to Japan

Manhattan Project

Little Boy - dropped on Hiroshima in August 1945, Fat Man - dropped on Nagasaki after Japan refused to surrender

Japan surrenders on _______

August 14 = date Japan surrendered

September 2, 1945

V-J Day, Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri

United Nations

designed to maintain international peace & security, Isaiah 2:4 is inscribed on the building in New York

3 major bodies in the UN

1) Secretariat - administrative arm of the UN, 2) General Assembly - all member nations are represented to debate world issues, 3) Security Council - embodies the executive, or enforcement, power of the UN

Stalin

established himself as dictator of the USSR after Lenin, literally re-wrote history

Five-Year Plan

series of programs designed to build industrial production

Collectivization

bringing agriculture under government control

purges

wiping out anyone who might be disloyal to Stalin

Comintern

"Communist International", found Communist parties in other countries

Fascism characteristics

1) privately owned business with government control, 2) highly nationalistic, 3) military dictatorship, 4) glorifies the state

Communism characteristics

1) government owns & controls business, 2) seeks classless, international society, 3) "dictatorship of the proletariat", 4) teaches that the state will gradually wither away

Mussolini

leader of the Fascist party in Italy, became the premier of Italy, il Dulce - "leader" or "commander"

Autarky

program for making Italy self-sufficient

Syndicates

13 groups which represent different divisions of the work force

Lateran Treaties

series of agreements Italy made with the Roman Catholic Church

Wilhelm II abdicates which leads to Germany.....

getting a republic

Reichstag

German Parliament

Weimar Republic

government set up after WWI

Hitler

one of the most murderous & tyrannical dictators in modern history

National Socialist Germans Worker's Party =

Nazi Party

Mein Kampf

"My Struggle", written by Hitler while in prison for a revolt

Swastika

Nazi movement, symbol = broken cross

Hindenburg

president of the Weimar Republic, asked Hitler to join the coalition and made him chancellor

Gestapo

secret police, under Himmler's SS

Kristallnacht

harming Jews

Autobahnen

superhighways

Expressionism

artist paints how he feels rather than realistically portraying the object, color is key

Matisse

best representative of expressionism through painting

Cubism

reduced figures to geometric shapes to be portrayed from several perspectives at once

Picasso

believed that what we see might not be the final reality, cubist painter

3 materials commonly used in agriculture at this time

concrete, glass, steel

Sullivan

American architect credited with developing the skyscraper

Gropius

functionalist who popularized this style in Europe

Frank Lloyd Wright

buildings blended with their surroundings

Stravinsky

"Father of Modern Music"

polytonality

used several keys simultaneously

Schonberg

abandoned all fixed tone patterns

atonal music

no special emphasis given to any 1 tone

T.S. Eliot

poet who portrayed the desolation & meaninglessness of modern life, "The Waste Land" & "The Hollow Men"

Thomas Mann

presented central characters as passive figures victimized by uncontrollable surroundings

James Joyce

developed the "stream-of-consciousness" technique

25% unemployment in....

Great Britain

dole

government relief for the unemployed ----> becomes a welfare state

Ramsay MacDonald

1st Labour Party prime minister of Britain, signals the rise of socialism

Statute of Westminister

declared Canada, Australia, New Zealand, & South Africa to be "autonomous communities"

Leon Blum

prime minister of the Popular Front, a socialist & communist

France made _____ w/ smaller European countries

defensive alliances

Maginot Line

underground fortifications believed to stop any German attack, didn't work in WW2

Pres. Harding

"return to normalcy"

Pres. Coolidge

"the business of the United States is business"

Pres. Hoover

"...the future....is bright with hope", during the Roaring Twenties

October 1929

stock market crashed

Pres. Franklin Roosevelt

elected after Hoover to solve America's problems

New Deal

programs of relief, recovery, & reform; increased power of the Bureaucracy - the non-elected officials who handle government affairs

characteristics of totalitarian states

1) use of propaganda, 2) use of secret police, 3) emphasis on goals of state, 4) state control of every aspect of life, 5) government maintained by force, 6) one-party political system

Alexander III

attempted to suppress revolutionary ideas & activities; censorship, pogroms - organized government massacres of the Jews

Nicholas II

incompetent ruler

Bolsheviks

change through violence

Russo-Japanese War

brought popular discontent to the surface, ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth

Bloody Sunday

government soldiers opened fire on unarmed marchers; 200,000 singing people asking for reform

soviet (coucil)

formed by workers in St. Petersburg

Duma

national assembly elected by the people

Rasputin

evil monk who advised the royal family

riots & uprising cause....

Nicholas II abdicates, end of Romanov rule (over 300 years)

Kerensky

leader of the Provisional Government

Lenin

leader of the Bolsheviks, believed in violent revolutions, student of Karl Marx, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ended war with Germany)

Trotsky

leader of the Communist "Red Army", opponents were the White Army which was supported by the US

USSR

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (15 republics), capital moved to Moscow

"war communism"

tightly regulated system of economic controls

New Economic Policy

temporary retreat from Communism to rescue the Russian economy (capitalism)

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