The process of transmitting information from one person or place to another.
The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
The personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli.
Parts of perception process
States that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior.
2 attributions to explain behavior
Internal and external
The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes
Tendency to overestimate our value by attribution successes to ourselves and attributing failures to others
The process by which the receiver translates the verbal or symbolic form of the message into an understood message.
Formal Communication Channels
The system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information
Communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level.
The transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
Communication w/ someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-hob performance or behavior.
Communicating w/ someone about non-job related issues such as stress, child care, health issues, retirement planning, or legal issues that may be affecting or interfering w/ the person's performance.
Movements of the body and face
Pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice.
The method used to deliver an oral or written message
2 most common perception problem in organizations:
Selective Perception and Closure
Kinds of communication:
3 formal communication channels:
One highly connected individual shares information w/ many other managers and workers
Numerous people simply tell a few of their friends
2 kinds of nonverbal communication
Kinesics and paralanguage
Strategies to help being a better active listener:
1. Clarify responses
2. Paraphrase or Summarize
Understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame or reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.
3 steps to empathetic listening
1. Wait 10 seconds before you respond
2. Be sure you understand what the speaker wants
3. Respond with feelings first then with facts
Types of constructive feedback
Collaborative Discussion Sites
Use web or software based discussion tools to allow employees across the company to easily ask questions and share knowledge w/ each other.
Steps to establish successful collaborative discussion sites:
1. Pinpoint your company's top intellectual assets through a knowledge audit
2. Create an online directory detailing the expertise of individual workers and make it available to all employees
3. Set up discussion groups on the intranet
4. Reward information sharing