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Science

a human endeavor seeking to reduce the complexity to the generic principles used to make predictions

Data

The information which science works and from which conclusions are inferred

Scientific Method

The way a scientist approaches a problem forming a hypothesis and experimenting

Hypothesis

A statement that might be true and is testable by observation and experimenting

Inductive Reasoning

using specific examples to draw a general conclusion

Deductive reasoning

operates from generalities; makes relationships between datem apparent

Variable

factor that influences a process

Control

when a variable remains constant providing a standard

Theory

integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses

Risk assessment

using statistical methods to quantify the harmful effects on human health or environment

Toxicant

chemical with advert affects of health

Toxicology

study of toxicants

Acute Toxicity

effects of exposure to toxins ranging from dizziness to death

Chronic Toxicity

long term damage to vital organs

Dose

amount entering the body

Response

type or amount of damage caused by toxin exposure

Lethal Dose 50%

amount lethal to 50 % of animals given does

Effective Dose 50%

Used for a wide range of biological responses

Dose Response Curve

shows the effect of different doses on a population of test organisms

Threshold

maximum dose that has no measurable effect

Carcinogen

cancer causing radiation chemical or virus

Additive

when two affects combine and the effect is what expected

Synergism

effect is greater when two are combined

Antagonism

effect combined two is less than expected

Precautionary principle

when new technology or chemical is suspected of threatening humans or animals

Ecological Risk Assessments

process when risks are assessed

Environmental Stressors

human induced changes that tax the environment

Watershed

area of land drained by a river

Cost Benefit Analysis

estimated cost compared w/potential benefits to determine expenses

Model

formal statement describing the behavior of a process

Eutrophication

nutrient enhanced freshwater lakes

Garrett Hardin

Published of Tragedy of the commons, 1968

Global commons

parts of the environment that are available to everyone but has shared responsibility

Stewardship

shared responsibility for everyone

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