ACT Science Challenge words

99 terms by MissWilliamsladybug 

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absolute

existing independent of any other cause

accuracy

freedom from mistake; exactness; the relationship between the graduation on a measuring device and the actual standard for the quantity being measured

adverse

acting against or in an opposite direction

analogous

similar or comparable in certain respects

analyze

to study the relationship of the parts of something by analysis

application

ability to put to a practical use; having something to do with the matter at hand

approximately

nearly; an estimate or figure that is almost exact

argument

a reason for or against something

assumption

something accepted as true

comprehend

to understand fully

concentration

the ratio of the amount of solute to the amount of solvent or solution

conclusion

a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration

confirm

state or prove the truth of; substantiate; verify

consequence

a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

consistent

Steady; regular

Constant

persistent in occurrence and unvarying in nature

contradiction

opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas

control group

in an experiment, a group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor

controlled experiment

an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

criticism

disapproval expressed by pointing out faults or shortcomings

definitive

clearly defined or formulated

demonstrate

(v.) to clearly explain, show or prove with examples, models, or experiments; to gather in public to support an opinion or cause

dependence

a state of being controlled by something else

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

diminish

decrease in size, extent, or range

direct relationship

a relationship between two factors in which the factors move in the same direction

effective

producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect

estimation

an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth

ethical

(adj.) Having to do with morals, values, right and wrong; in accordance with standards of right conduct; requiring a prescription for purchase

evaluation

an appraisal of the value of something

evidence

collected body of data from observations and experiments

examine

consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning

expectation

An anticipated result or performance

experiment

the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

experimental design

the manner in which a scientist intends to conduct an experiment

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

explanation

a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.

extrapolation

an inference about the future (or about some hypothetical situation) based on known facts and observations

figure

a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

fundamental

being or involving basic facts or principles

generalization

a conclusion that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

illustrate

clarify by giving an example of

imply

express or state indirectly

inconsistent

not in agreement

incorporate

include or contain

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

indication

something that serves to signify; a sign

indicator

any device that measures, records, or visibly points out; any of various substances used to point out, such as, a cause, treatment, or outcome on an action

ingredient

a component of a mixture or compound

interpolation

(mathematics) calculation of the value of a function between the values already known

inverse (indirect) relationship

the connection between two variables that shows the opposite effect (i.e., when the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases)

investigate

to look into closely; to study in great detail

irregular

deviating from what is usual or common or to be expected

issue

an important question that is in dispute and must be settled

judgement

the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions

justify

defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning

legend

A list that identifies patterns, symbols, or colors used in a chart.

maximum

the greatest possible degree

measurement

a quantitative description that includes both a number and a unit

mechanism

the technical aspects of doing something

minimum

the smallest possible quantity

model

the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)

modify

to change

observation

use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather information

opinion

a belief based on experience and on seeing certain facts

optimum

most favorable condition or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

pattern

a model, guide, or plan used in making things; definite direction, tendency, or characteristics

perform

get (something) done

phenomenon

a fact or event which can be observed and/or documented

precision

a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another

predict

to say what will happen before it occurs

preference

a strong liking for one thing over another

probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

procedure

a particular course of action intended to achieve a result

proponent

one who argues in support of something

proportional

properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics

reasonable

marked by sound judgment

refute

prove to be false or incorrect

relationship

how one thing is connected to another

replicate

to duplicate, copy, or repeat

revise

to go over carefully in order to correct or improve

simulation

the act of imitating the behavior of some situation or some process by means of something suitably analogous (especially for the purpose of study or personnel training)

study

applying the mind to learning and understanding a subject (especially by reading)

suggest

make a proposal, declare a plan for something

summarize

give the main point or idea

support

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

theory

a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world

translate

change from one form or medium into another

treatment

a specific experimental condition applied to the units

underlying

The main, primary, or basic cause of a thing

unit

a single undivided whole

validity

the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure

value

a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed

variable

liable to or capable of change

viewpoint

a mental position from which things are viewed

controlled variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely keeps the same

interpretation

an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious

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