reciprical exchange of genetic materials between nonsister chromatids
cell containing only 1 set of chromosomes
cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent
reproduction involving 1 parent that produces offspring by budding or the division of a cell/organism
reproduction in which 2 parents give rise to offspring that have unique combination of genes inherited from both parents
haploid egg or sperm cell
diploid product of union of haploid gametes in conception, fertilized egg
chrosome pairs of same length, centromere position, and staining pattern one is inherited from dad, other from mom
pair of homologous chrosomes that have replicated and come together in prophase, consists of 4 chromatids
process in the ovary that results in the production of female gametes
continuous and prolific production of mature sperm cells in the testis
chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
DNA condenses, spindle starts to form, nuclear membrane dissapears, homologous chrosomes pair up to form tetrads, crossing over
Tetrads line up at the equator
Tetrads pull apart and chromosomes with two chromatids move toward the poles
Chromosomes with two chromatids decondense and a nuclear envelope reforms around them. Each nucleus is now haploid.
Exact same steps as metaphase, where the cells split up and create 4 cells
What are the reasons why cells divide?
To grow, to reproduce, to heal
What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
DNA condenses into chrosomes, spindle forms, centrioles move to opposite end of cell, nuclear membrane dissapears
Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell, spindle fibers connect centromere to the poles of the cell
What happens during anaphase?
Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart, 1/2 of each chromosome (called sister chromatids) move to each daughter cell
DNA spreads out, 2 nuclei form
Microtubules that help chromosomes separate
Two cells formed from mitosis; exactly the same
The phase where the cell prepares for division (DNA and organelles replicated, cell grows)
A constricted region having binding sites for spindle microtubules
Structure that helps organize microtubule assembly during cell division
One of the two attached members of a duplicated chrosome
1 of the 2 DNA molecules of a duplicated chromosome that remain attached to each other at the centromere region during nuclear division
All of the DNA molecules and associated proteins in a nucleus
A period of rest between telophase I and prophase II where the nuclear membrane reappears
Is mitosis or meiosis associated with growth and asexual reproduction?
Is mitosis or meiosis associated with sexual reproduction?
How many divisions does mitosis have and how many divsions does meiosis have?
Mitosis: One division
Meiosis: Two divisions
Does mitosis or meiosis involve the duplication of chrosomes?
In which is the chromosome number halved, mitosis or meiosis?
In which does synpasis occur in prophase, mitosis or meiosis?