Chapter 26 Practice Questions

Created by qweetness 

Upgrade to
remove ads

25 terms

1 .The early atmosphere on Earth is thought to have lacked which one of the following gases?
methane
carbon dioxide
oxygen
water
nitrogen

oxygen

2 .The oldest evidence of life on Earth, although controversial, is _____.
the fossilized remains of simple plants that are over 5 billion years old
3.8-billion-year-old rocks with isotopes of carbon that seem to represent the metabolic activity of organisms
the mineralized remains of tiny animals
the fossilized remains of cellular colonies dating from about 3 million years ago
none of the above

3.8-billion-year-old rocks with isotopes of carbon that seem to represent the metabolic activity of organisms

3 .In their experiment on the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds, which of the following gases did Miller and Urey use to simulate Earth's early
atmosphere?
H2O only
H2O and CH4 only
H2O, CH4, and H2 only
H2O, CH4, H2, and NH3
H2O, CH4, H2, NH3, and O2

H2O, CH4, H2, and NH3

4 .The Miller and Urey abiotic synthesis experiment (and subsequent, similar experiments) showed that _____.
life can be created in a test tube
long chains of DNA can form under abiotic conditions
simple organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions like those thought to prevail early in Earth's history
the earliest life forms introduced large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere
the "concentration gap" probably prevented simple organic molecules from polymerizing

simple organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions like those thought to prevail early in Earth's history

5 .Which statement below is not an explanation of how deep-sea vents may have been important factors in the origin of life?
They may have been the source of some of the carbon-containing compounds that cells use in energy metabolism.
Sulfides of iron and nickel common in deep-sea vents are excellent catalysts.
The high temperatures associated with deep-sea vents were a source of energy for the reactions necessary for the formation of protobionts.
Oxygen was abundant near deep-sea vents and encouraged the formation of polymers.
All of the above are reasons that deep-sea vents may have been important to the origin of life.

Oxygen was abundant near deep-sea vents and encouraged the formation of polymers.

6 .Protobionts of one sort or another—aggregates of abiotically produced molecules—display all but one of the following properties of living cells. The
one property they lack is a(n) ______.
ability to absorb substances from their surroundings
genetic library
selectively permeable membrane
transmembrane voltage potential
ability to grow

genetic library

7 .Biologists are interested in the role of liposomes in the origin of life. They think that liposomes might show how _____.
raw materials for organic compounds formed
the formation of organic polymers, such as carbohydrates and RNA, were catalyzed
primitive cell membranes could form, grow, and divide
energy was supplied for the metabolism of the first simple cells
all of the above

primitive cell membranes could form, grow, and divide

8 .Cech and Altman suggested that the first self-replicating molecules were _____.
DNA
phospholipids
viruses
true proteins
RNA

RNA

9 .The correct order of the geologic eras, from most ancient to most recent,
is _____. (Concept 26.2) [.]
Paleozoic, Cenozoic, Mesozoic
Proterozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Paleozoic
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Proterozoic
Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic

Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic

10 . A radioactive isotope has a half-life of 1.2 billion years. As measured by the presence of the isotope and its stable decay product, a rock originally contained 10 grams of the radioactive isotope, and now contains 1.25 grams. Approximately how many years old is the rock?
10,000 years
12 billion years
3.6 billion years
0.3 billion years
1,000 years

3.6 billion years

11 .Fossils that can be used to establish relative dates are most likely to be found in _____.
the continental shelves
glacial till (i.e., rubble)
sedimentary rock
igneous rock
volcanic archipelagos, such as the Galápagos and Hawaiian Islands

sedimentary rock

12 .What evidence most strongly suggests that an impact by an asteroid or meteorite may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?
Fossils show that dinosaurs suffered from cold and starvation.
Sedimentary rocks contain a layer of iridium, a mineral uncommon on Earth.There have been several near misses in recent years.
The dinosaurs disappeared rather abruptly, virtually overnight.
Fossils indicate that most dinosaurs were looking up when they died.

Sedimentary rocks contain a layer of iridium, a mineral uncommon on Earth.

13 .Three or four of the following statements correctly apply to the event that paleontologists regard as the most catastrophic mass extinction of all time. Which one, if any, of these statements is not correct?
This mass extinction occurred about 245 million years ago.
This mass extinction occurred at the end of the Permian period.
This mass extinction occurred at the end of the Paleozoic era.
This mass extinction occurred just before the beginning of the age of dinosaurs.
All of the above statements correctly describe the most catastrophic mass extinction of all time.

All of the above statements correctly describe the most catastrophic mass extinction of all time.

14 .Ancient cyanobacteria were very important in the history of life because they _____.
were probably the first organisms to live on Earth
produced atmospheric oxygen
are the oldest known archaea
were the first truly multicellular organisms
extracted heat from the atmosphere, cooling Earth

produced atmospheric oxygen

15 .What prokaryotic adaptation occurred during the oxygen revolution and opened up the possibility for energy-demanding multicellular life-forms?
electron transport systemsanaerobic fermentation
aerobic respiration
photosynthesis
emergence of obligate anaerobes

aerobic respiration

16 . What ability did early eukaryotic cells have to survive without?
the ability to engulf other cells
the ability to undergo mitosis
anaerobic fermentation
electron transport
the ability to shift internal structures

electron transport

17. Which statement below is not an argument for the endosymbiotic origin of plastids and mitochondria?
Mitochondria and plastids reproduce by a method that is very similar to binary fission.
The inner membrane of both types of organelles have enzymes and transport systems that are homologous to those on the plasma membrane of
prokaryotes.
Each type of organelle contains a single circular DNA.
The ribosomes of each type of organelle are more similar to cytoplasmic ribosomes of eukaryotic cells than to ribosomes of prokaryotic cells.
Each of these organelles contains tRNA and other molecules need to translate DNA.

The ribosomes of each type of organelle are more similar to cytoplasmic ribosomes of eukaryotic cells than to ribosomes of prokaryotic cells.

18 .Genetic annealing is the ______.
term used to describe the horizontal transfer of genetic material between bacterial and archaeal lineages
process by which the first eukaryotic cells performed meiosis
process by which the first eukaryotic cells performed mitosis
method by which archaea reproduce
process by which the first self-replicating RNA formed

term used to describe the horizontal transfer of genetic material between bacterial and archaeal lineages

19 .What does the snowball Earth hypothesis propose?
Once the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared, their sizes and populations grew exponentially, like a snowball rolling down a hill.
Multicellular eukaryotes had an advantage over single-celled organisms in extremely cold conditions.
The first multicellular eukaryotes formed colonies on the surface of glaciers.
Multicellular organisms evolved when conditions were so cold that plasma membranes of unicellular organisms fused.
Larger multicellular eukaryotes are scarce in the fossil record until the late Proterozoic because an ice age limited life to deep-sea vents and hot springs.

Larger multicellular eukaryotes are scarce in the fossil record until the late Proterozoic because an ice age limited life to deep-sea vents and hot springs

20 .Which one of the following best describes how the breakup of Pangaea affected evolution?
Mammals had an opportunity to become dominant.
Shallow marine habitat became scarcer.
Extensive glaciation caused mass extinctions.
The geographic isolation of populations that had previously coexisted led to speciation.
Sympatric speciation became the primary means by which new species were formed.

The geographic isolation of populations that had previously coexisted led to speciation.

21 .Plants colonized land in the company of _____; their symbiotic relationships still exist today.
fungi
animals
insects
cyanobacteria
algae

fungi

22 . The fauna and flora of Australia are very different from those of the rest of the world. Why might this be true?
They have become different by convergent evolution.
The climate of Australia is unlike that of any other place in the world.
Australia was never in close proximity to the other continents.
Life in Australia was wiped out by ancient volcanic eruptions.
Australia has been isolated for about 50 million years.

Australia has been isolated for about 50 million years.

23 .Bacteria were classified as plants for many years because _____.
most species are photosynthetic
of their rigid cell walls
their metabolism was identical to that of plants
bacteria and plants both have flagellated gametes
bacteria contain cellulose in their cell walls

of their rigid cell walls

24 .In the five-kingdom system of classification, eukaryotic organisms that absorb their nutrients (many are decomposers of organic material) are members of kingdom _____.
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

Fungi

25 .Multicellular organisms that ingest their nutrients are classified in kingdom _____.
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

Animalia

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set