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Influences on Indonesia

Hindu beliefs (1st and 2nd centuries), Buddhist beliefs (5th century), Muslim beliefs (13th century)

Bali

home of Indonesia's Hindu minority

Gamelan

the generic name for an ensemble, referencing the manner in which instruments are played and made (played with mallets and hammered into shape); usually accompanies theater or dance

Wayang

shadow puppet play accompanied by a gamelan

Gongs and Drums

core instruments of gamelan music, these instruments are feared and respected

Knobbed Gong

made of bronze and collectively referred to as pencon; has a protrusion to help focus the pitch

Gong Ageng

large hanging gong

Gong Siyem

a smaller hanging gong

Kempul

a set of hanging gongs smaller than the siyem

Kenong

a set of large pot gongs on a wooden frame

Kethuk

a small pot gong on a wooden frame

Kempiang

a pair of small pot gongs on a wooden frame

Bonang

a family of three instruments, although only the smallest and medium sized instruments are generally used in gamelan, including set of pot gongs mounted on a wooden frame in two panel rows

Saron

a family of three instruments that is played with one wooden or bone mallet; each note is dampened with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand as the next note is sounded so that the melody comes through clearly

Gender

a family of three instruments played with a very soft mallet; the keys on these instruments are very thin

Gambang

a instrument used in gamelan with keys made of wood instead of bronze

Kendhang Ageng

the largest of the drums used in gamelan, played either alone or in conjunction with the kepitung

Bedhug

a large hanging drum

Kepitung

a small drum that often interacts with the kendhang

Batagan or Ciblon

a drum used for playing rhythmic patters to accompany dance

Pesindhen

the female soloist in Central Javanese gamelan

Gerongan

the male unison chorus in Central Javanese gamelan

Gerong bedayan

the mixed chorus in Central Javanese gamelan

Celempung

a zither

Rebab

a two-stringed, bowed fiddle

Suling

a bamboo flute

Slendro

a five-note tuning system for gamelans; pitches are generally notated in a cipher notation wherein numbers substitute for pitches

Pelog

a seven-note tuning system for gamelans

Pathet

modes in which different pitches are emphasized and other deemphasized in gamelan tuning systems

Colotomic

a timeline in which regular time periods are delineating by punctuating sounds; gong agent marks the end of the main cycles; part of gamelan performance aesthetic

Simplified/Abstract Melody

the layer at which one piece is distinguished from another; part of gamelan performance aesthetic

Balungan

the essence of the melodic material; played by the saron family in octaves

Elaborated/Varied Melody

fancy melodies are played on instruments that have more than one octave at their disposal, thereby preserving melodic contour; often played by higher pitched instruments; highest saron plays two notes for every one played on the middle saron; part of gamelan performance aesthetic

Drum Patterns

larger drums tend to reinforce the colotomic patters and announce shifts in tempo or the imminent ending of the piece

Gong Kebyar

type of instrument that works on the same principles as the Javanese gamelan, but the keyed instruments come in pairs (creating a shimmering sound distinctive pin Bali) and the instruments are played with harder mallets (creating a brighter and more metallic timbre)

Kempli

often charged with playing the composite rhythm of the colotomic layer

Gangsa

creates the metallic timbre in gong kebyar ensembles when it is played with harder mallets

Kotekan

the sound of rapid, interlocking melodic parts

Kabuki

main form of Japanese musical drama from the 16th century

Degatari

onstage musicians of Kabuki

Chobo

the name of the gidayu (musico-narrative) duo on the kabuki stage and debayahsi are the other on-stage musicians

Geza

the offstage musicians in kabuki

Bunraku

an important for of Japanese puppetry from the 16th century

Gidayubushi

the vocal style most closely associated with the narrator in bunraku, characterized by heightened speech and lyrical songs

Noh

an important form of Japanese theater from the 14th century

Sageuta

a song in the lower range during noh plays

Ageuta

a song in the higher range during noh plays

Hayashi

the flute (nohkan) and drum (taiko, kotsuzumi, and otsuzumi, from lowest to highest pitched) ensemble in noh

Kakegoe

vocal drums used in particular during noh theater

Shakuhachi

end-blown flute

Koto

thirteen-stringed zither plucked with small finger-picks

Shamisen

three-stringed lutes with a pick

Sokyoku

koto music with or without voice

Kumiuta

sokyoku with voice and kotu

Danmono

instrument version of sokyoku (typically features the koto, shamisen, and shakuhachi)

Jiuta

hybrid form of sokyoku with or without a vocalist; consists of song 1 (maeuta), interlude, and song 2 (atouta)

Gagaku

6th century court music in Japan, played with a large ensemble; instruments were imported from China and adapted to local use (like the biwa, the who, and the ryuteki)

Jo-ha-kyu

a broad structure that characterizes many of the pieces in the gagaku repertory; means introduction-development-denoument

Yutkuk

Cantonese opera songs used to connect to the past and construct identity in the present

Bongwong

aria songs from the Cantonese opera; require the most skill

Siukuk and Paaiji

fixed tunes from the Cantonese opera; appropriate for karaoke; least dependent on interaction

Syutcheung

narrative songs from the Cantonese opera

Mestizo

music in Peru involving the blending of Amerindian and European beliefs and practices

Festival in Paucartambo

festival in Peru to honor the Virgin of Carmen

Chunchos

heroes; rich and powerful jungle Indians; feathered headdresses and spears; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe; flutes and drums

Qollas

uncivilized outsiders; unruly; traders of the high plateau; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe; orquestra tipica (Andean Harp, violins, accordion, ken as, and drums)

Saqras

devils; colonial Spanish costume; blonde wigs; monster or animal masks; dance a contra dance; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe

Doctores

parodies of lawyers and government officials; surrounding spectators beat them with law books to represent the exploitation of rural Peruvians; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe

Son

Huasteca ensemble consisting of violin, huapanguera (eight strings), and jarana (five strings)

Ranchera

Mariachi Jalisco; double and triple time together; ensemble consists of violins trumpets, and guitarron

Corrido

Conjuntos Nortenos ensemble consisting of an accordion, drum kit, bajo sexton, and bass

Aymara

a group living in Conima and the highlands of Peru; value the group over the individual; people do not confront each other publicly; mainly play flutes and drums; vocal music is relatively unimportant; musicians never play solos; flutes played with breathy tone to facilitate blending

Zarzuelas

Spanish-language operettas popular in Cuba; local contribution to the music scene

Tonadillas

more informal Spanish operetta played in Cuba; local contribution to the music scene

Cantradanza Habanera

English country dance originally brought to Haiti and then Cuba; gradually made more Cuban and turned into a light-classical genre; became a dance for intimate couples

Danzon

played on the same, light-classical sophistication of the contradanza, but took the Afro-Cuban rhythm that had been hinted at in the habanera; incorporated the cinquillo

Cinquillo

rhythmic ostinato incorporated in the danzon in Cuba

Charanga Francesa

replaced the orchestra tipica and consists of piano, bass, timbales, two violins and a flute; significant no claves

Bolero

a song about unrequited love in Cuba; slow dance genre characterized by bass-line; sung solo with guitar accompaniment

Rumba

secular Cuban dance; developed in the late 1800s as a form of entertainment in urban lower-class Afro-Cuban neighbors; ensemble consists of a lead vocalist, a chorus, and three percussionists

Guaguanco

style of rumba that consists of interlocking motives of the 2/3 clave, the plaits on the side of the drum, the basic patterns of the congas, and the improvised play of the quint conga; banned during 1888

Canto

narrative text part of the rumba

Montuno

call and response of the chorus/percussion in rumba; ritualized enactment of the male conquest

Vacunao

pelvic thrusting during the montuno

Columbia

a solo male dance of virtuosic character

Son

influenced by European and African worlds; on one hand the guitar, tres, quadratic verse forms, and bongos, clave, botija, marimbula, and guiro on the other; most popular dance genre in the 1930s; trumpet was added and the septet format took root

Paris

where rumba traveled after being banned on the streets in Cuba; things only changed after tourists began to demand rumba in top-tier clubs

Colonial Insignificance

the period during which Spain did little to establish Trinidad; Spain was busy installing "the Columbus machine" in more lucrative locations

Plantation Economy

influx of French planters and their slaves caused Trinidad to become an exporter of cocoa, coffee, cotton, and sugar; caused a shift from Spanish to French creole culture; Trinidad was ultimately ceded to the British

Calypso

word cariso was originally used to describe a French creole song; chant wells, assisted by drums, made stick fighting happen; drumming was banned in 1883 and stick fighting was banned in 1884; ban on stick fighting led men to become more involved in singing carisos

Tamboo Bamboo

ingenious substitute for drumming following the Musical Ordinance of 1883; consist of the boom, foule, and cutter

Boom

five feet long and stamped on the ground (deepest sound)

Foule

two pieces of bamboo about a foot long each struck end to end (higher pitch than boom)

Cutter

a thinner piece of bamboo (could be any length) held over the shoulder and struck with a stick

Single Tone

four lines, picong style of singing carisos

Double Tone

eight lines, style of singing carisos

Pasillo

the rhythmic grandfather of the modern calypso

Steelbands

hit the streets in the first post-WWII carnival; still outlawed and took people by surprise

Dreamtime

Aboriginal Australia; legendary beings wandered across the continent, singing the names of everything they encountered

Songlines

paths traced across the continent joining together all the totemic objects

Dijeridoo

of unknown origin; production of low pitched fundamental by loosely buzzing the lips, plus a higher tone with tighter lips; continuous drone with cyclical breathing; performances vary widely, some are monotone, others melismatic

Nitmiluk

a way of claiming the place as territory and reconstituting the Jawoyn nation; Jawoyn is about connecting to the rich legacy of Aboriginal life in a post-colonial conflict

Native American Music

concept of song as a relatively short unit; songs presented in large groups and as parts of elaborate ceremonies; generally monophonic vocal melodies; most vocables; uses a scale of about 3-4 notes (phrases start on higher pitch and gradually descend)

Strophic Songs

very short Native American songs that consist of one or two lines repeated many times

Plains Style

characterized by movements from high pitches to low pitches, rhythmic pulsations on the long notes, tension, strophic songs, and a descending line of three or four phrases

Eastern United States

greater variety of forms than other styles; rounder and more relaxed vocal style; sometimes a bit of call and response

Yuman

Southwestern United States and parts of Southern California; a phrase or short group of phrases is repeated several times but is interrupted occasionally by another, slightly higher and definitively contrastive section

Ghost Dance

these songs protested the encroachment of white Americans on their land and way of life; songs were believed to bring back the dead and save the water buffalo

Peyote Music

intertribal and based on hallucinogenic buttons of a cactus native to Mexico

1930 Western film

stereotypes of the drum; modal melodies in fourths or fifths

1950 Western films

demonstrated a change in the cowboy; cowboy was sensitive; focus on Native American culture; heroes fall in love with Native American women; Native American culture was shown to be dignified; composers used modal flutes and strings to romanticize the music

1970 Western films

Native American culture was authentic; composers tried to de-familiarize sounds

1980 and 1990 Western films

composers like John Barry and Ry Cooder abandoned modal and tom-tom idioms; used authentic Native American chants

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