the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood
the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries
Mean arterial pressure MAP
Driving pressure of left ventricle. the best estimate of this value is to add 1/3 of the pulse pressure to the diastolic pressure. this value will vary with the influence of gravity. Proportional to cardiac output multiplied by peripheral resistance.
the measure of the strength of the pressure wave. The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
The resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation. This increases if arteries constrict (diameter decreases), and an increase in resistance leads to an increase in blood pressure.
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute (vol/min); the product of the stroke volume (vol/beat) and the heart rate (beat/min). Cardiac output is directly proportional to blood pressure**.
nerves that signal smooth muscles in arteries and arterioles to contract and regulates the diameter of the blood vessels
Ratio of red blood cells to plasma and protein concentration, higher of this means higher resistance
the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood
platelet plug formation
important phase that platelets play in blood clotting in which the opening is physically blocked because the platelets stick to each other and release chemicals which cause more platelets to stick
enormous cells in the bone marrow that release packets of cytoplasm (platelets) into the circulating blood.
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
White blood cell that releases histamine, which promotes inflammation, and heparin, which prevents clot formation
daltons law of partial pressure
the total pressure of gas in a system is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases
diaphragm relaxes & moves up into original dome shape. This decreases the chest volume & moves air out of the lungs
the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration
external intercostal muscles
assist with inhalation by enlarging the rib cage
Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
A watery fluid produced in the thoracic cavity. The fluid comes from the blood. It has three major functions: lubrication, reducing heat buildup, and to create surface tension which causes the lungs to remain against the thoracic wall.
The peritubular capillaries that surround the lower tubules of the nephron. This reclaims reabsorbed substances, such as water and sodium ions.
Earliest phase of digestion when the brain thinks about and prepares the digestive organs for the consumption of food
10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, traches, bronche, lungs, aorta, esophagus, & stomach
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
fainting from common emotional reaction to blood, needles, or other traumatic things
closely related to capillaries that make them less leaky. Also a factor in blood brain barrier
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
The growth of new blood vessels
low blood pressure that cannot overcome the opposition of gravity
abnormally high blood pressure, may cause weakened areas to rupture.
automatically adjusts blood flow, vascular smooth muscle has the ability to regulate it's own state of contraction.
The process in which an increase in blood flow accompanies an increase in metabolic activity
an increase in tissue blood flow fllowing a period of low perfusion is known as?
most common; are abundant in the skin and muscles, and have: endothelial cells that provide an uninterrupted lining
capillaries that have pores in the endothelium; permeable; found in the small intestine, endocrine glands and kidneys
discontiunous capillaries; irregular blood-filled spaces that conform to the surrounding tissue shapes ex) liver, bone marrow, spleen
the mass movement of a fluid due to a difference in pressure between two locations
movement into capillaries during bulk flow due to osmotic pressure
movement out of capillaries during bulk flow
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
reflex that maintains appropriate blood pressure; responds to changes in pressure in the aorta and carotid arteries
congestive heart failure
hypertension leads to the decrease in force of the left ventricle allowing edema of the right ventricle, pulmonary vein, and the lungs