Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy— the church court that Galileo was brought before
to take back what was stated; to lie about the truth which Galileo was encouraged to do before the Inquisition
a doctrine, written by Galileo, that disagreed with the orthodox church or a document that disagrees with authority or something already stated.
Leaders of the Enlightenment: John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft
separation of powers
Baron di Montesquieu believed in separating the government into three parts; 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2)Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)
Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations supporting this theory ("hands off" people on the business)
supported by Adam Smith - the law that allows the government to regulate industries to benefit and create wealth for all
The Wealth of Nations
written by Adam Smith, supporting the economic theory laissez-faire capitalism
the clergy - wealthy bishops made up .5% of the total population of France but owned 10% of the land and also possessed many special privileges and paid no taxes
consisted of the nobility - made up 1.5% of the total population of France but owned 20% of the land and held important government positions but also paid no taxes
everyone else that made up the population of France - especially the growing bourgeoisie or middle class that lived in the cities of Paris - made up 98% of the population of Paris and shared the rest of the land in the country but didn't own any of it and paid all the taxes
another name for the Parliament in France that was called in by Louis XIV to help with the debt of the country
Tennis Court Oath
the oath that was established by the New Assembly which stated they would not disband until a new constitution was established
Declaration of the Rights of Man
the rights that were established by the New Assembly which stated: freedom of speech, religion and press, equality to all men and women, the terms liberty equality and fraternity became the slogan of the French Revolution
the new Monarchy that was adopted by the New Assembly under the Rights of Men - this type of government has three different branches: king limited in power, a one house Legislative (unicameral), only property owning men were allowed to hold office
the form of government in which the population of the country have a say in who rules over them
the type of government that was voted into power by the Legislative Assembly, became a republic and abolished the monarchy - this new National Convention declared that the French Revolutionary armies would liberate Europe - developed many changes during its rule: abolished all titles & slavery, codified laws & introduced the metric system, introduced a new calendar and closed churches and developed the religion called Deism
universal manhood suffrage
the right to vote for men that was established under the National Convention
Reign of Terror
the name of the revolution that became apparent under Robespierre because of the amount of blood that was shed at the guillotines
the religion that was promoted under the National Convention that stated God created the earth but never intervened
the government that was established after the National Convention, which was an oligarchy - eventually turned into a Dictatorship
they type of government that was established under Napoleon in which he promoted himself to the First Consul of the new type of government, The Consulate
Congress of Vienna
the congress that met in 1815 to settle the problems of the French Revolution and establish peace and prevent further revolutions form happening
the days that Napoleon marched on Paris after he escaped from the island he was exiled on
an English writer who is considered the found of modern European feminism - she believed the Enlightenment and promoted reason for women
a "giver of the final truth" along with the other Greek philosophers during the Middle Ages
the Polish astronomer form the early 1500's - he rejected the geocentric view and promoted the heliocentric view - wrote a book but it wasn't a huge success because he had little mathematical proof
the philosopher from the 1500's - he made many discoveries especially ones that supported Copernicus and his heliocentric views: constructed his own telescope, discovered 4 of the 13 moons that orbit Jupiter, proved Earth did move and was brought before the inquisition and forced to recant, he died under house arrest while still working on developing his theories
the Flemish scientist that pioneered the study of anatomy - argued against barbers doing surgeries
the English doctor that studied the circulatory system - first to suggest that the heart was a pump
a Flemish cartographer who developed more efficient maps - also developed the Mercator Projection
English mathematician - great scientist of all time - wrote a book that explained gravity and therefore explained the movement of the planets
the editor of the Encyclopedia of Diderot that was written by 160 different philosophers - 32 volumes - written between 1751 & 1780 - had articles on every style of the Enlightenment
best known English philosopher who greatly influenced the development in the US - he believed in humans natural rights - his big three were life, liberty and property - he stated that the government was there to protect and secure these rights for people and if they didn't like it they didn't could change the government
writer of the Declaration of Independence - followed John Locke's footsteps in beliefs - he was the U.S. President that bought the Louisiana Purchase
believed the British had the most perfect form of government - in 1748 he published the Spirit of Laws - had a huge effect on the US Constitution in 1787 - believed int he separation of powers: 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2) Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)
best known philosopher - spent time in prison for political offenders called the Bastille - he fought against the religious intolerances and injustice - not a believer in Christianity - "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend it to the death, your right to say it".
believed that civilization corrupted people - admired the Native Americans as "noble savages" because they were uncorrupted - wrote The Social Contract - believed in popular sovereignty, the idea that people should choose their government
Scottish economist - wrote The Wealth of Nations which supported laissez-faire capitalism - "hands off" people in the business - the government doesn't own industries but the natural laws create all the wealth for people - not practiced today
King of France (1774-1792): lacked self confidence, married the daughter of the Austrian Empress, Maria Theresa, married Marie Antoinette who grew to be hated by the French people, sent aid to the US which increased the countries debt forcing him to make hard choices
wife of Louis XVI who was pretty and charming but extravagant and was hated by the French people
one leader of the National Convention - he was honest but narrow minded - too idealistic - after his death there was a reaction against the Convention and a last revolutionary government was created called the Directory
French General - married to Josephine - he defeated Austria - he invaded Egypt to cut off British - he overthrows the Directory and makes himself Fist Consul - he sold the Louisiana territory to US President Jefferson to get money to invade Britain - his biggest mistake was trying to invade Russia - he was exiled to Elba and then escaped - he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium - he was exiled to St. Helena and died of cancer there in 1821
the Russian Czar that angered Napoleon by not enforcing the ban on trade with Britain - refused to fight Napoleon when he invaded Russia - Napoleon withdrew and Alexander attacked
fled France - the allies once again organized to stop Napoleon under the leadership of the Duke of Wellington
the radicals in the assembly - favored a republic - in 1792 they agitated the crowds - attacked the King's Swiss guards who were massacred and the king was imprisoned
the country that Napoleon fought against to save France in 1797 after he convinced the Directory to give him an army to do so
Battle of the Nile
the battle where British Navy destroyed the French fleet and trapped Napoleon's army in the Nile
the country where Napoleons army and navy was captured by the British - Napoleon abandoned his army and sailed for home
Battle of Trafalgar
the Spanish fleet was defeated here by Lord Nelson who was wounded and eventually died
the second and final island that Napoleon was exiled to - Napoleon died of cancer there in 1821
the territory that was owned by France and then bought by US President Jefferson because Napoleon needed money to invade Britain
the Congress of Vienna that met in 1815 to settle the problems of keeping peace and stop future revolutions - began a time of reaction for the next 30 years
How are governmental powers separated in America?
Separated into 3 branches: 1)Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2)Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)
How did Europeans of the Middle Ages "Learn" as opposed to learning during the Renaissance and Enlightenment?
during the Renaissance and Enlightenment people began thinking for themselves - they began to experiment and prove what was being taught instead of just accepting it
Which two philosophes had the greatest impact on the US government and why?
John Locke - life, liberty and property; believed that people had natural rights; governments were there to protect the rights and people could change their government. Baron de Montesquieu - believed in the separation of powers: 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2) Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3) Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)
Why don't nations practice laissez-faire capitalism today?
because we have discovered that industries, such as individual people, do need rules to play fairly so some rules is what is best for society
Describe how we got the terms "right-wing" and "left-wing" to be used politically.
in the Legislature the three groups picked sides to sit on: Radicals supported the republic = left side, Conservatives supported the King = right side
What new laws were passed by the National Assembly once it took over?
over 2,000 new laws!! eliminated special rights of the nobility, made new courts and eliminated serfdom, confiscated the land the Catholic Church had to help play debt, adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Men
What laws did the more radical National Convention government pass?
abolished all titles, except "citizen", codified the laws of France, abolished slavery in all French colonies, introduced the metric system, introduced a new calendar
What were the two goals of The Committee of Public Safety in France?
1. they were to direct the army 2. to hunt down traitors within France
Why was Napoleon unable to defeat Great Britain?
because he couldn't defeat their Navy so when he tried to cut off their trade from Egypt the British just defeated his fleet and trapped his army in Egypt
How was Napoleon defeated in Russia?
The Russian army refused to fight back so the French army continued further into Russia until the French army was over extended and winter came causing Napoleon to withdraw troops which allowed the Russians to attack
Name two of Napoleon's non-military accomplishments
1. He started the Bank of France 2. He started public education 3. abolished the Holy Roman Empire with is German Confederation of the Rhine 4. He codified laws