GACS lclab World History - STUDY GUIDE Enlightenment & French Revolution

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GACS lclab - World History - STUDY GUIDE Enlightenment & French Revolution

geocentric

the view that everything in the universe revolves or moves around the earth

heliocentric

the view that the earth revolves or moves around everything else in the universe

Inquisition

Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy— the church court that Galileo was brought before

recant

to take back what was stated; to lie about the truth which Galileo was encouraged to do before the Inquisition

heresy

a doctrine, written by Galileo, that disagreed with the orthodox church or a document that disagrees with authority or something already stated.

philosophe

Leaders of the Enlightenment: John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft

separation of powers

Baron di Montesquieu believed in separating the government into three parts; 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2)Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)

popular sovereignty

Rousseau believed in the idea that people should choose their own government

laissez-faire capitalism

Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations supporting this theory ("hands off" people on the business)

natural law

supported by Adam Smith - the law that allows the government to regulate industries to benefit and create wealth for all

The Wealth of Nations

written by Adam Smith, supporting the economic theory laissez-faire capitalism

First Estate

the clergy - wealthy bishops made up .5% of the total population of France but owned 10% of the land and also possessed many special privileges and paid no taxes

Second Estate

consisted of the nobility - made up 1.5% of the total population of France but owned 20% of the land and held important government positions but also paid no taxes

Third Estate

everyone else that made up the population of France - especially the growing bourgeoisie or middle class that lived in the cities of Paris - made up 98% of the population of Paris and shared the rest of the land in the country but didn't own any of it and paid all the taxes

bourgeoisie

another name for the middle class of France that are in the Third Estate

Estates General

another name for the Parliament in France that was called in by Louis XIV to help with the debt of the country

Tennis Court Oath

the oath that was established by the New Assembly which stated they would not disband until a new constitution was established

Declaration of the Rights of Man

the rights that were established by the New Assembly which stated: freedom of speech, religion and press, equality to all men and women, the terms liberty equality and fraternity became the slogan of the French Revolution

constitutional monarchy

the new Monarchy that was adopted by the New Assembly under the Rights of Men - this type of government has three different branches: king limited in power, a one house Legislative (unicameral), only property owning men were allowed to hold office

republic

the form of government in which the population of the country have a say in who rules over them

National Convention

the type of government that was voted into power by the Legislative Assembly, became a republic and abolished the monarchy - this new National Convention declared that the French Revolutionary armies would liberate Europe - developed many changes during its rule: abolished all titles & slavery, codified laws & introduced the metric system, introduced a new calendar and closed churches and developed the religion called Deism

universal manhood suffrage

the right to vote for men that was established under the National Convention

Reign of Terror

the name of the revolution that became apparent under Robespierre because of the amount of blood that was shed at the guillotines

deism

the religion that was promoted under the National Convention that stated God created the earth but never intervened

Directory

the government that was established after the National Convention, which was an oligarchy - eventually turned into a Dictatorship

oligarchy

the rule of a few (5 men) - the type of rule in the Directory

Consulate

they type of government that was established under Napoleon in which he promoted himself to the First Consul of the new type of government, The Consulate

Congress of Vienna

the congress that met in 1815 to settle the problems of the French Revolution and establish peace and prevent further revolutions form happening

Hundred Days

the days that Napoleon marched on Paris after he escaped from the island he was exiled on

Mary Wollstonecraft

an English writer who is considered the found of modern European feminism - she believed the Enlightenment and promoted reason for women

Aristotle

a "giver of the final truth" along with the other Greek philosophers during the Middle Ages

Nicholas Copernicus

the Polish astronomer form the early 1500's - he rejected the geocentric view and promoted the heliocentric view - wrote a book but it wasn't a huge success because he had little mathematical proof

Galileo

the philosopher from the 1500's - he made many discoveries especially ones that supported Copernicus and his heliocentric views: constructed his own telescope, discovered 4 of the 13 moons that orbit Jupiter, proved Earth did move and was brought before the inquisition and forced to recant, he died under house arrest while still working on developing his theories

Vesalius

the Flemish scientist that pioneered the study of anatomy - argued against barbers doing surgeries

William Harvey

the English doctor that studied the circulatory system - first to suggest that the heart was a pump

Mercator

a Flemish cartographer who developed more efficient maps - also developed the Mercator Projection

Isaac Newton

English mathematician - great scientist of all time - wrote a book that explained gravity and therefore explained the movement of the planets

Diderot

the editor of the Encyclopedia of Diderot that was written by 160 different philosophers - 32 volumes - written between 1751 & 1780 - had articles on every style of the Enlightenment

John Locke

best known English philosopher who greatly influenced the development in the US - he believed in humans natural rights - his big three were life, liberty and property - he stated that the government was there to protect and secure these rights for people and if they didn't like it they didn't could change the government

Thomas Jefferson

writer of the Declaration of Independence - followed John Locke's footsteps in beliefs - he was the U.S. President that bought the Louisiana Purchase

Montesquieu

believed the British had the most perfect form of government - in 1748 he published the Spirit of Laws - had a huge effect on the US Constitution in 1787 - believed int he separation of powers: 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2) Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)

Voltaire

best known philosopher - spent time in prison for political offenders called the Bastille - he fought against the religious intolerances and injustice - not a believer in Christianity - "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend it to the death, your right to say it".

Rousseau

believed that civilization corrupted people - admired the Native Americans as "noble savages" because they were uncorrupted - wrote The Social Contract - believed in popular sovereignty, the idea that people should choose their government

Adam Smith

Scottish economist - wrote The Wealth of Nations which supported laissez-faire capitalism - "hands off" people in the business - the government doesn't own industries but the natural laws create all the wealth for people - not practiced today

Louis XVI

King of France (1774-1792): lacked self confidence, married the daughter of the Austrian Empress, Maria Theresa, married Marie Antoinette who grew to be hated by the French people, sent aid to the US which increased the countries debt forcing him to make hard choices

Marie Antoinette

wife of Louis XVI who was pretty and charming but extravagant and was hated by the French people

Maximilien Robespierre

one leader of the National Convention - he was honest but narrow minded - too idealistic - after his death there was a reaction against the Convention and a last revolutionary government was created called the Directory

Napoleon Bonaparte

French General - married to Josephine - he defeated Austria - he invaded Egypt to cut off British - he overthrows the Directory and makes himself Fist Consul - he sold the Louisiana territory to US President Jefferson to get money to invade Britain - his biggest mistake was trying to invade Russia - he was exiled to Elba and then escaped - he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium - he was exiled to St. Helena and died of cancer there in 1821

Lord Horatio Nelson

leader of the English army that defeated the French and became a hero

Alexander I

the Russian Czar that angered Napoleon by not enforcing the ban on trade with Britain - refused to fight Napoleon when he invaded Russia - Napoleon withdrew and Alexander attacked

Louis XVIII

fled France - the allies once again organized to stop Napoleon under the leadership of the Duke of Wellington

Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley

Jacobins

the radicals in the assembly - favored a republic - in 1792 they agitated the crowds - attacked the King's Swiss guards who were massacred and the king was imprisoned

Bastille

the prison for political offenders - Voltaire spent time here

Corsica

the Italian island that was owned by the French where Napoleon was born in 1769

Austria

the country that Napoleon fought against to save France in 1797 after he convinced the Directory to give him an army to do so

Moscow

the capital of Russia at the time of Alexander I when Napoleon captured it

Battle of the Nile

the battle where British Navy destroyed the French fleet and trapped Napoleon's army in the Nile

Egypt

the country where Napoleons army and navy was captured by the British - Napoleon abandoned his army and sailed for home

Battle of Trafalgar

the Spanish fleet was defeated here by Lord Nelson who was wounded and eventually died

Elba

the first island that Napoleon was exiled to, off the Italian coast

Waterloo

the place where Napoleon was finally defeated for good - located in Belgium

St. Helena

the second and final island that Napoleon was exiled to - Napoleon died of cancer there in 1821

Louisiana Territory

the territory that was owned by France and then bought by US President Jefferson because Napoleon needed money to invade Britain

Vienna

the Congress of Vienna that met in 1815 to settle the problems of keeping peace and stop future revolutions - began a time of reaction for the next 30 years

How are governmental powers separated in America?

Separated into 3 branches: 1)Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2)Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3)Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)

How did Europeans of the Middle Ages "Learn" as opposed to learning during the Renaissance and Enlightenment?

during the Renaissance and Enlightenment people began thinking for themselves - they began to experiment and prove what was being taught instead of just accepting it

Which two philosophes had the greatest impact on the US government and why?

John Locke - life, liberty and property; believed that people had natural rights; governments were there to protect the rights and people could change their government. Baron de Montesquieu - believed in the separation of powers: 1) Legislative - make laws (Congress/General Assembly) 2) Executive - enforces laws (President/Governor) 3) Judicial - judge the law and lawbreakers (Supreme Court)

Why don't nations practice laissez-faire capitalism today?

because we have discovered that industries, such as individual people, do need rules to play fairly so some rules is what is best for society

Describe how we got the terms "right-wing" and "left-wing" to be used politically.

in the Legislature the three groups picked sides to sit on: Radicals supported the republic = left side, Conservatives supported the King = right side

What new laws were passed by the National Assembly once it took over?

over 2,000 new laws!! eliminated special rights of the nobility, made new courts and eliminated serfdom, confiscated the land the Catholic Church had to help play debt, adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Men

What laws did the more radical National Convention government pass?

abolished all titles, except "citizen", codified the laws of France, abolished slavery in all French colonies, introduced the metric system, introduced a new calendar

What were the two goals of The Committee of Public Safety in France?

1. they were to direct the army 2. to hunt down traitors within France

Why was Napoleon unable to defeat Great Britain?

because he couldn't defeat their Navy so when he tried to cut off their trade from Egypt the British just defeated his fleet and trapped his army in Egypt

What European country was defeated by Napoleon in dramatic fashion several times?

Austria

How was Napoleon defeated in Russia?

The Russian army refused to fight back so the French army continued further into Russia until the French army was over extended and winter came causing Napoleon to withdraw troops which allowed the Russians to attack

Name two of Napoleon's non-military accomplishments

1. He started the Bank of France 2. He started public education 3. abolished the Holy Roman Empire with is German Confederation of the Rhine 4. He codified laws

What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna?

They met to maintain order, keep peace and stop future revolutions from rising up. It began the Time of Reaction for the next 30 years.

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