Reflections Chapter 7 Southern Colonies

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constitution

A written plan of government.

debtor

people who owed money; person put in prison for owing money

backcountry

frontier area; between Coastal Plain and Appalachian Mountains; beyond colonies; difficult to get to because of forest, hills & no roads

circle graph

a graph that shows data as parts of a whole

ethnic group

group of people from the same country, of the same race, or with a shared culture

percent

one-hundredth of a total or a whole

institutionalized

a part of life

planter - define, role/job

plantation owners;
ran the plantation, provided food & housing for those on plantation; performed a public service (working for the community)

overseer - define, role, lived

person hired by wealthy plantation owner to watch the field slaves; separate house near owners

indigo

blue dye that was used in clothmaking

interdependence

dependence on others for goods or services

broker

person who is paid to buy and sell for someone else

land use

way in which the land in a place is used

Maryland - founded by whom, when
- location
- city

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, = Cecilius Calvert, 1632;
next to Chesapeake Bay & Potomac River
St. Mary's City (1st city)

George Calvert

Lord Baltimore; member of Virginia Company, asked for charter from Charles I; died before charter signed

Cecilius Calvert

son of George, new Lord Baltimore; owner of colony he named Maryland

Leonard Calvert

1st governor of Maryland; chosen by Cecilius Calvert

1633

1st colonist arrived in Maryland; most indentured servants

Slavery become legal because

need for workers grew in the colonies

How did laws make slavery institutionalized

laws made slavery legal & part of institution

Cash crops

made money for plantations
tobacco, rice, indigo

Plantation owners

"planters"
riches people in the Southern Colonies

Plantations - were like small villages
- 1st built where

contained houses, workshops, kitchens + on a large amount of land;
along rivers on coastal Plain;

How did most Southern colonists make their living

planted and harvested their own crops

Affects of plantation on life in southern Colonies

no schools because plantations far apart, need for slaves to run plantations, economy depended on plantations

Enslaved people preserved their culture by

singing African songs & telling stories about Africa

Slaves - types
- not allowed to
- slave children were

Field and house
speak out, leave their owners, vote
slaves

Field slaves duties

worked in fields, raised crops

House slaves duties

work in the planter's home, kitchen

Small farm owners

former indentured servants, poor, lived far from each other, did not own slaves

Anthony Johnson

former slave, in 1640's bought land in Virginia, became wealthy tobacco planter

Casor

slave owned by former slave Anthony Johnson

Fort Mose

first settlement in North America for free Africans; 1738 Spanish governor of Florida set up this town to protect St. Augustine from English attacks

Spanish Florida

slaves were allowed to be free here; free Africans started colonies here

Free Africans

some had escaped, some bought freedom

Seminole Indians

provided food, land & shelter to escaped slaves; given 1/3 of cops in payment

Black Seminoles

former slaves who dressed like Seminoles, spoke their language

First African arrived in Virginia

1619

Toleration Act

1649, passed by Maryland to allow religious freedom

Carolina - founded by whom, when
- location
- crops

grant from Charles II, 1633;
from Virginia to Spanish Florida
tobacco and corn

Lords Proprietors

8 English leaders who were given Carolina; wrote the constitution

Carolina constitution

1669; allowed free, male colonists to elect leaders & make some laws; king proprietors had most of the power

Carolinas split - when
- why

1712;
hard to govern such a large territory

South Carolina - crop

rice (Carolina Gold)

James Oglethorpe

wealthy English leader; sent debtors to settle area south of South Carolina; named colony Geogia

Georgia - founded when & why
- why named Georgia

1733; to keep control of area so wouldn't lose it to France or Spain;
in honor of King George II

the Piedmont

land between the coastal Plain and Appalachian Mountains; backcountry;

Great Wagon Road

trail used to get to backcountry that got widened enough for wagons after so much use

Indians of Southern Colonies

Cherokee, Creek, Powhatan

Chattawka

village of Tuscarora that North Carolina colonists destroyed to build New Bern

why did Tuscarora attack colonists settlements

wanted to frighten away colonists

Tuscarora War

1711, ended in 1713 with most of Indians killed, captured or enslaved

What effect did settlers have on Indians in Southern Colonies

pushed them out of their land; Indians were killed, captured or enslaved and finally moved further inland

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