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World War II flashcards

Battle of Stalingrad

(1942) World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad, a city on the Volga River; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964) American general, he commanded U.S. troops in the Southwest Pacific during World War II and administered Japan after the war ended. He later commanded UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War until he was removed by President Truman.

Bataan Death March

(1942) a forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Philippines in World War II

Battle of Midway

(1942) World War II naval battle fought in the Pacific; the Americans broke the Japanese code and knew the date and location of the attack, setting the stage for a major American victory

Battle of Guadalcanal

(1942-1943) World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island

Kamikazes

in World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships

Deported

forced to leave a country

Final Solution

the Nazi Party's plan to murder the entire Jewish population of Europe and the Soviet Union

Ghetto

an area where minority groups live

Concentration Camps

detention sites created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and, in some cases, kill civilians

Holocaust

the killing of millions of Jews and others by the Nazis during World War II

D-Day

June 6, 1944; the first day of the Allied invasion of Normandy in World War II

V-E Day

(1945) May 8, 1945; a term used by the Allies, it stands for "victory in Europe" during World War II

Battle of Iwo Jima

(1945) World War II battle between Japanese forces and invading U.S. troops

Battle of Okinawa

(1945) World War II victory for the Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all of the 100,000 Japanese defenders; the battle claimed 12,000 American lives

Harry S. Truman

(1884-1972) Thirty-third president of the United States; he became president upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He led the United States through the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War.

Hirohito

(1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989; he led Japan during World War II and was forced into unconditional surrender following the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

V-J Day

(1945) August 15, 1945; a term used by the Allies, it stands for "victory over Japan" during World War II

Yalta Conference

(February, 1945) a meeting between Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin to reach an agreement on what to do with Germany after World War II

United Nations

international organization formed in 1945 to maintain world peace and encourage cooperation among nations

Potsdam Conference

(1945) a meeting of Allied leaders in the German city of Potsdam to address issues about the post-World War II Europe

appeasement

giving in to aggressive demands in order to avoid war

Winston Churchill

(1874-1965) British prime minister; he opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through World War II.

Axis Powers

the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan in World War II

Nonaggression Pact

an agreement between nations to not attack one another

Blitzkrieg

a German word meaning "lightning war"; a fast, forceful style of fighting used by Germans in World War II

Allies

the alliance of Britain, France, and Russia in World War II; joined by the United States after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941

Battle of Britain

(1940) three month air battle between Germany and Great Britain fought over Great Britain during World War II; Britain's victory forestalled a German invasion

Hideki Tojo

(1884-1948) Japanese nationalist and general; he took control of Japan during World War II. He was later tried and executed for war crimes.

Isolationism

staying out of the affairs and wars of other nations; the position initially held by the United States at the beginning of World War II

Erwin Rommel

(1891-1944) German general during World War II; he commanded the Afrika Korps and was nicknamed the Desert Fox for his leadership.

Battle of El Alamein

(1942) World War II battle in which the Britain won a decisive victory over Germany in Egypt, securing the Suez Canal

Dwight D. Eisenhower

(1890-1969) Thirty-fourth president of the United States; he led the Allied invasion of North Africa and the D-Day invasion of France and commanded the Allied forces in Europe during World War II.

Siege of Leningrad

(1941-1942) Nazi army's unsuccessful attempt to capture the city of Leningrad in the Soviet Union during World War II; as many as 1 million civilians perished during the siege

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