2nd Red Scare
Fears of communists and U.S.S.R. held by post world war 2 americans. escalated by McCarthy, HUAC, federal employee loyalty program, Hiss case, Soviet Union gaining the bomb, and anticommunist hysteria
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
Truman signed executive order in which every person entering civil/govt employment would be subject to background tests. in response to second red scare, and fueled red scare further.
George C. Marshal
head of allied forces during WW2, became secretary of state under Truman, advocated a plan to rebuild europes economy
U.S. gave economic aid to rebuild europe ($13 billion), in order to eliminate attraction to communist parties and allow western Europe to buy U.S. goods; offered to eastern Europe yet refused.
Berlin Air Lift Crisis
increased ensions btw/ U.S. and Soviet Union led Soviet Union to seal off land access to Berlin, U.S flew in supplies to West Berlin for over a year. increased divisions/tensions
North Atlantic Treaty Organization.- formed military alliance among U.S., UK, France etc. ; multilateral policy. Communists responded with Warsaw Pact
Truman's Civil Rights Proposals
Truman ended racial discrimination in govt. hiring and armed forces; also proposed furher civil rights legislation yet blocked by "conservative coalition"
Shock's of 1949
USSR successfuly tested first atomic bomb; and communist revolution in China lead by Mao Zedong
1949 China Fell to Communists and Mao Zedong was leader; contributed to the second red scare
originated as a civil war between communists and anti-communists; U.N. forces defended south korea; China entered the war; armistice in 1953; Results: established cold war economy, freeze in U.S.-Chinese relations, red scare escalated, permanence of cold war
Truman vs MacAthur
MacArthur wanted to expand Korean war to China, yet Truman disagreed; disagreed publicly over the issue which resulted in MacArthur's firng by Truman;
anticommunist hysteria expanded by McCarthy; who claimed that communists had infiltrated the federal govt, media, and society
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
"Ike" president from 1953-1961; did not repeal new deal, yet opposed "creeping socialism" , federal interstate highway act, Warren Court, undermined McCarthy
Post WW2 Conservative Movement
Opposed to reforms, often blocked New Deal type legislation; involved libertarians and new (moral/social) conservatism; formed republican party; democrats opposed to civil rights legislation (southern democrats) also considered conservative
liberal activist judges (created law rather than interpreting law, and tended to be liberal); expanded rights of individual Americans: civil rights, religious worship, structure of political representation, criminal law, privacy
Jack Kerouac- " On the Road" and Allen Ginsberg- "Howl" ; harsh critiques of U.S. society; strong influence on counterculter of 1960s
"separate but equal" in public school education is inherently unequal; thus school segregation is unconstitutional, supreme court decision
Montgomery Bus Boycott
boycott of bus service (lead by MLK) in response to Rosa Parks being jailed for refusing to give up a seat to a white person; ended with court ordered bus integration in Montgomery
Dr.Martin Luther King Jr.
leading civil rights leader who formed SCLC; advocated nonviolent protests and was assasinated in 1968
Greensboro sit ins
members of SNCC organized a sit in of "all white" lunch counters in order to push for desegregation; eventually led to desegregation; MLK did not organized and was not involved = king did not cause civil rights movement, a grassroots movement.
National Highway/Interstate Highway Act
creation of federal interstate highway system for transportation and defense
CIA - Iran & Guatemala
CIA overthew parliamentary govt of Mossadegh in Iran (1953); CIA overthrew democratically elected govt of Jacobo Allende in Gutemala (1954)
"containment" vs "rollback"
"containment" policy was preventing the expansion of communist govts because it was believe that the USSR was behind all communism everywhere; "rollback" policy believed that containment was defeatist; not only should the U.S. prevent the spread of communism but also push back communism in Eastern Europe and Asia
USSR launched satellite into earth in 1957 that resulted in the space race and increased education spending;
race between U.S. and USSR to see who could make the most advancements in space first; culminated with apollo 11 landing July 21, 1969.
Soviets shot down and captured U.S. pilot resulted in the collapse of Paris Summit and damaged Krushchev
President John F. Kennedy
1961-1963; New Frontier Program was undermined by conservative coaltion that blocked health insurance, keynesian tax cut); epanded defense spending due to the belief in a missile gap; assassinated
Creation of Berlin Wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later; height of cold war
The attempts to desegregate the "citadel of segregation"; police chief Eugene "Bull' Connor used police dogs & fire hoses on non-violent protesters; King's "letter from a Birmingham Jail"; RESULT: desegregation partially achieved; use of these brutal tactics (shown on national television) created sympathy for civil rights movement ---> JFK's civil rights speech
President Lyndon B. Johnson
President from 1963 to 1969. Most legislatively productive U.S. President. Civil Rights Legislation, Keynesian economics (Kennedy tax cut), Immigration Act, Warren Report, Great Society, War on Poverty (Office of Economic Opportunity, Head Start, Food Stamps, Medicaid), Medicare, money lost to Vietnam - escalation