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Prep for AP Psych exam

Social Psychology

study of people in interaction with each other

Group dynamics

general term for some of the phenomena we observe when people interact

social facilitation

increase in performance on a task when performed in front of others

social inhibition

when presence of others worsens performance

social loafing

putting less effort in a group task

group polarization

exaggerating our initial attitudes (judgments) after being in groups

cooperative orientation

group members try to maximize outcomes for all involved individuals

Altruistic orientation

seeking to maximize outcome for others

individualist orientation

try to maximize their own benefit

competitive orientation

people willing to max their own benefit at the expense of others

Groupthink

developed by Irving Janis, when members are so driven to reach unanimous decisions, they no longer think through individual values and realistic outcomes

mindguard

one responsible for criticizing or ostracizing members of the group who do not agree with the rest

Attribution

how people assign responsibility for certain outcomes

dispositional attribution

assumes cause of a behavior or outcome is internal/ individual

situational attribution

assigns cause to the environment or external conditions

self-serving bias

credits self when outcomes are positive, but says it is external when results are negative

fundamental attribution error

when judging behavior of others, attributing more of it to the person than the environment or situation

self-fulfilling prophecy

behaving in an unnatural way that makes a prediction come true

Rosenthal Effect

when educators teach different children different after judging the kids' intellects, resulting in the students' performances to reflect teacher's judgment

Interpersonal attraction

tendency to positively evaluate a person and gravitate to that person.
factors: characteristics, environmental and social influences

Positively evaluation

we tend to prefer the company of people who think highly of us

Shared opinions

tend to mix with people who praise and agree with our opinions

Mere Exposure Effect

how proximity affects attraction (the closer people are, the ore likely they are to be friends)

Conformity

modification of behavior to make it agree with that of a group

Soloman Asch

gender, size of group, self esteem, unanimity of group's opinion, but not age, affected individual's opinion when asked in a group

Compliance

agree to the requests of others, even f it hurts you

Foot in the door phenomenon

involves making small requests, then work up to big requests

Obedience

studied by Stanley Milgram, electric shock test, showed the more authority a person has, the more likely their orders will be followed

Social learning theory

AKA modeling, people tend to be obedient to figures of authority

Attitudes

combinations of affective (emotional) and cognitive (perceptual) reactions to different stimuli
Affective is the emotional response, cognitive component is what we think about the item or issue

Persuasion

process by which person or group nfluences the attitudes of tohers

Central route to persuasion

the use of facts to persuade

persuading factors

interpersonal attractiveness (attractive, likable, trustworthy, knowledgeable)
nature of the message (repetition, fear)
low self-esteem

Cognitive dissonance

when attitudes and behaviors contradict each other, generally people adjust their attitude and continue their behavior
Studied by Leon Festinger

Altruism; helping behavior

selfless sacrifice, when people form empathic response to plight of others

Bystander effect

when a large group does not help someone in need because of diffusion of responsibility

equity theory

workers evaluate their efforts versus their rewards

Human facotrs research

deals with interaction of person and machine

Hawthorne effect

indicates workers being monitored for any reason work more efficiently and productively

Antisocial behavior

harmful behavior to society or others (can be divided to prejudice and aggression)

Prejudice

negative attitude toward members of a particular group without evidentiary backing

Out group homogeneity

every member of a group other than our own is similar

illusory correlation

when we tend to see relationships where they don't actually exist

contact hypothesis

groups would lose stereotypes if groups were exposed to each other

Robbers' Cave experiment

opposing teams hated each other, but when working together, found that they were similar to each other

Hostile aggression

emotional and impulsive, typically induced by pain or stress

instrumental aggression

aggression committed to gain something of value

Conclusion from Albert Bandura's work

showed if children see adults rewarded for aggression, they will copy that behavior

Dehumanization

ability to view the victims of violence as somehow less than human, demonstrated by Phil Zimbardo (jail project)

Reducing aggression

Do not use punishment, but show non aggressive models of conflict resolutions, or diffusion of aggression with humor or empathy

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