Synthetic Drugs, (1920s - present)

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100 terms · Learn about almost all synthetic or designer drugs, which are mainly created through analogs or derivatives of existing drugs; by modifying their chemical structure to varying degrees.

Alpha-Methylfentanyl

An opiod, it was invented in 1976 and appeared on the black market under the name "China White". It has similar effects to fentanyl.

Parafluorofentanyl

It is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl. And it was sold briefly on the black market in the early 1980s, before the introduction of the Federal Analog Act

3-Methylfentanyl (3-MF)

An opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl, and discovered in 1974. It is one of the most potent drugs that has been widely sold on the black market, estimated to be between 400-6000 times stronger than morphine. It was used in the Russian chemical weapon "Kolokol-1".

Desmethylprodine (MPPP)

An opioid analgesic drug developed in the 1940s. It is an analog of meperidine (Demerol) and was first synthesised in 1977. When used, it selectively kills brain tissue, and causes permanent Parkinsonian symptoms.

Methopholine

An opioid analgesic drug discovered in the 1950s by Swiss researchers. It is isoquinoline derivative which is not structurally related to most other opioids. It has around the same efficacy as an analgesic as codeine.

O-Desmethyltramadol (O-DT)

An opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol. It has recently been marketed as a "legal substitute" to illegal opioid drugs of abuse, either in powder form or mixed into various other preparations; such as laced Kratom.

Nortilidine

The active metabolite of the drug Tilidine. The racemate has opioid analgesic effects roughly equivalent in potency to that of morphine.

N-Acetyllysergic acid Diethylamide (ALD-52)

A chemical analogue of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); it was possibly the active chemical in the "Orange Sunshine" LSD that was widespread in California through the late 1960s. It was originally discovered by Albert Hofmann but was not widely studied until the rise in popularity of psychedelics.

6-Ethyl-6-Nor-Lysergic acid Diethylamide (ETH-LAD)

A chemical analogue of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), the hallucinogenic drug is slightly more potent than LSD itself, with an active dose reported at between 40 and 150 micro-grams. It has subtly different effects to LSD, and is described as less demanding.

6-Allyl-6-Nor-Lysergic acid Diethylamide (AL-LAD)

A hallucinogenic drug and an analogue of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), it has subtly different effects than LSD, and appears to be slightly shorter lasting, their potencies are similar; an active dose is reported to be between 80 and 160 micrograms.

6-Propyl-6-Nor-Lysergic acid Diethylamide (PRO-LAD)

An analogue of LSD, It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL. It is another hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around as potent as LSD itself with an active dose reported at between 100 and 200 micrograms.

Lysergic acid 2-Butyl Amide (LSB)

An analogue of LSD originally developed by Richard Pioch at Eli Lilly in the 1950s. In theory, it would be slightly less potent than LSD as a hallucinogen in humans.

Lysergic acid 2,4-Dimethylazetidide (LSZ)

Another lysergamide-based analogue of the hallucinogen LSD developed by the team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.

N,N-Diisopropyl-4-Acetoxytryptamine (4-Acetoxy-DiPT)

Also known as Ipracetin, it is a hallucinogenic tryptamine. A common dosage is 15 - 30mg with an onset of 20 - 60 minutes (depending on stomach contents), and a duration of two to four hours. It has been compared in its effects to 2C-B and psilocybe mushrooms, including open and closed-eye visual hallucinations.

O-Acetylpsilocin (4-AcO-DMT)

Also known as Psilacetin, psychedelic drug and has been suggested to be a potentially useful alternative to psilocybin. It is the acetylated form of the psychedelic mushroom alkaloid psilocin. It was patented in 1963, dosages range from 8 - 30mg, the onset appears to last 20 - 40 minutes, with peak effects beginning at around 2 hours. It is characterized as smoother, gentler, and more pleasant than the onset of mushrooms. The visuals are quite mild at average doses, with mental effects dominating primarily. With closed eyes a person may perceive patterns, colors, and strange, sometimes intense subconscious awareness.

4-Hydroxy-N-Methyl-N-Ethyltryptamine (4-HO-MET)

Also known as metocin, it is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. It produces psilocin-like distortion of color, sound, and form; with a dose of 10 - 20mg.

4-Hydroxy-MiPT (4-HO-MiPT)

Also known as miprocin, it is a artificially-made, and a lesser-known psychedelic drug from the tryptamine family. It is part of the class of drugs known as serotonergic psychedelics (which includes magic mushrooms, LSD and mescaline), and its effects and molecular structure resemble that of the tryptamine psilocin.

5-Methoxy-Alpha-Aethyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT)

A long-acting tryptamine active at very low doses. It is generally available in either powder, tablet, or liquid form. Partially because of its low dosage and partially because of name confusion with the less-potent AMT, reports of accidental overly strong doses are fairly common. It is generally considered less pleasant, less fun, and more dangerous than AMT.

5-Methoxy-Diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT)

A tryptamine psychedelic that is orally active, and dosages between 6 - 20 mg are commonly reported. Many users note an unpleasant body load accompanies higher dosages. Also taken by insufflation, or sometimes it is smoked or injected. Some users also report sound distortion, also noted with the related drug, DiPT.

5-Methoxy-Diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT)

One of the less common psychedelic tryptamines that was developed by Alexander Shulgin in the 1980s. It shares some similarities with 5-MeO-DIPT. Users have reported aphrodisiac effects, minor changes in visual perception, mental stimulation, new perspectives, feelings of insight, emotional shifts, muscle tension, and mild tremor. There is a tendency of dreamy separation of mind and body as with 5-MeO-DMT.

Alpha-Methyltryptamine (AMT)

(Psychedelic Tryptamine; Euphoriant): A long-acting, synthetic psychedelic and euphoric stimulant known for causing nausea and vomiting. It was first developed in the 1960s and remained very uncommon until the 1990s when it experienced a surge in popularity and was scheduled in April 2003.

Diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT)

A relatively uncommon psychedelic. Primarily considered an auditory hallucinogen due to its "pitch-shifting" effects, though some people report significant visual effects, particularly at strong doses.

Dipropyltryptamine (DPT)

First reported in 1973, it is a relatively uncommon psychedelic tryptamine with effects somewhat similar to those of N,N-DMT. It is best known for having been used as a sacrament by the Temple of the True Inner Light.

N,N-Diallyl-5-Methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-DALT)

A psychedelic tryptamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. It is extremely uncommon with nearly no history of human use.

4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine (2-CB)

A synthetic psychedelic that first gained popularity as a legal MDMA replacement in the mid 1980s. It is known for having a strong physical component to its effects and a moderate duration.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Chlorophenethylamine (2C-C)

A short-acting synthetic psychedelic. It is uncommon and has only a short history of human use. A psychedelic phenethylamine, with dosage and effects similar, but not identical, to those of 2C-B. Some users report similarities with other psychedelics such as LSD.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methyl-Phenethylamine (2C-D)

This is usually compared to 2C-B or other psychedelic stimulants and sometimes to MDMA. Its effects are generally considered milder than 2C-B, LSD, or MDMA. It is not known for strong visuals nor is it generally considered as empathic or euphoric as MDMA. Alexander Shulgin referred to it as "pharmacological tofu", pointing out that it has been used to extend the effects of other compounds and that it is bland by itself. There has been some experimentation with the use of low-dose 2C-D as a "smart drug".

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Ethyl-Phenethylamine (2C-E)

Another psychedelic phenethylamine, with dosage and effects similar, but not identical, to those of 2C-B. Some users report similarities with other psychedelics such as LSD.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Iodophenethylamine (2C-I)

A phenethylamine somewhat similar in effects to 2C-B, it became available on the grey markets in 2002, but distribution dropped off after a series of DEA busts in 2004 and the prosecutions of vendors selling research chemicals for recreational use. It is available primarily in powder form -- though some pressed tablets have been seen; and is generally taken orally.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(N)-Propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7)

A psychedelic phenethylamine developed by Alexander Shulgin around 1980. Known for its colorful visuals, it experienced a surge in popularity, due to internet sales, during 1999-2001 before being made illegal in the U.S. As with all new chemicals, it is difficult to be certain what the variety of reactions to the substance will be and the reports of use so far have a lot of conflicting and confusing elements, including duration, physical stimulation, dosage, etc.

8-Bromo-2,3,6,7-Benzo-Dihydro-Difuran-Ethylamine (2CB-FLY)

The effects of 2C-B-fly have been described as somewhat similar to those of 2C-B. It is mildly psychedelic, much less mind-expanding or dissociative than mushrooms or LSD, but much less directed than MDMA. 2C-B-fly includes OEV effects which are usually described as morphing, rippling, shifting, or undulating. CEV's are present and increase with dosage. Some reports have described vivid mental images or visions (as opposed to visuals) with eyes closed.

Bromo-Benzodifuranyl-Isopropylamine (Bromo-dragonFLY)

Bromo-Dragonfly is part of a new class of benzodifurans, related to phenethylamine, but distinct in structure. Found on blotter as well as in powder form. It is a potent serotonin agonist and causes effects consistent with 5-HT-2A hallucinogens.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Bromoamphetamine (DOB)

A relatively uncommon synthetic psychedelic. It is best known for its very low doses and long duration. Effects include energy, pronounced visuals, marked clarity and reduction of emotions.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Chloroamphetamine (DOC)

A psychedelic chemical similar in nature to DOB. It requires only very small dosages to produce full effects. It is uncommon as a substance for human ingestion.

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methylamphetamine (DOM)

A psychoactive chemical similar in nature to LSD but with a longer duration. It is best known for several well-publicized, non-fatal overdoses in the late 1960s, when sold under the name "STP".

2,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2)

A synthetic chemical that is related to, but more potent than mescaline. It has both stimulant and psychedelic effects. It's qualitative effects on mood alteration and sensory enhancement are similar to mescaline.

NBOMe Series (NBOMe-2C-C; NBOMe-2C-I; NBOMe-mescaline)

This series of chemicals are primarily N-o-methoxybenzyl analogs of the 2C-X family of phenethylamines, as well as a few amphetamine analogs. Their effects have been compared to LSD, 2C-C, 2C-I and DOI. The effects can be very unpredictable, even with the same person taking the same dose at different times. These chemicals have nearly no history of human use prior to 2010 when they first became available online.

3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects that has been sold as a research chemical. It is around the same potency as phencyclidine, but has slightly different effects due to its altered binding profile; particularly being somewhat more potent as an NMDA antagonist while having around the same potency as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

4-Methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Its dissociative effects are comparable to ketamine, but has slightly different effects due to its altered binding profile at various targets.

Dizocilpine (MK-801)

This is much longer-lasting than similar dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP), and causes far worse amnesia and residual deficits in thinking, which have hindered its acceptance as a recreational drug.

Eticyclidine (PCE, CI-400)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine but is slightly more potent. PCE was developed by Parke-Davis in the 1970s and evaluated for anesthetic potential under the code name CI-400, but research into PCE was not continued after the development of ketamine, a similar drug with more favourable properties.

Methoxetamine (MXE)

A chemical of the arylcyclohexylamine class which has been sold as a designer drug. It is a derivative of ketamine that also contains structural features of eticyclidine (PCE, CI-400) and 3-MeO-PCP. Methoxetamine is thought to behave as a NMDA receptor antagonist and dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

N-(1-Phenylcyclohexyl)Propanamine (PCPr)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. It is around the same potency as phencyclidine, although slightly less potent than eticyclidine (PCE, CI-400), and has reportedly been sold as a designer drug in Germany and other European countries since the late 1990s. Related derivatives include PCMEA, PCEEA and PCMPA.

1-(1-Phenylcyclohexyl)Pyrrolidine (Rolicyclidine; PCPy)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine but is slightly less potent and has less stimulant effects, described as being somewhat similar to a barbiturate, but with additional PCP-like dissociative, anaesthetic and hallucinogenic effects. Due to its similarity in effects to PCP, it was placed into the Schedule I list of illegal drugs in the 1970s, although it has never been widely abused and is now little known.

1-(1-(2-Thienyl)Cyclohexyl)Piperidine (Tenocyclidine; TCP)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine (PCP) but is considerably more potent. Due to its similarity in effects to PCP, it was placed into the Schedule I list of illegal drugs in the 1970s, although it was only briefly used in the 1970s and 1980s and is now little known.

Methoxieticyclidine (3-MeO-PCE)

A dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects that has been sold as a research chemical. It is around the same potency as phencyclidine (PCP), but has slightly different effects due to its altered binding profile at various targets.

Benzylpiperazine (BZP)

BZP is a stimulant which gained popularity in some countries in the early 2000s as a legal alternative to amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA. A piperazine and a CNS stimulant. It is one of the more commonly used piperazines, providing stimulant effects which people describe as a noticeably different than those of amphetamines. It is not particularly popular because many people find that it has more side effects than amphetamines.

Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP)

A psychoactive drug of the phenylpiperazine class. It was initially developed in the late-1970s and used in scientific research before being sold as a designer drug in the mid-2000s. It has been detected in pills touted as legal alternatives to illicit stimulants in New Zealand and pills sold as "ecstasy" in Europe and the United States.

Para-Methoxyphenylpiperazine (MeOPP)

A piperazine derivative with stimulant effects which has been sold as an ingredient in "Party pills", initially in New Zealand and subsequently in other countries around the world.

Para-Fluorophenylpiperazine (pFPP)

A piperazine derivative with mildly psychedelic and euphoriant effects. It has been sold as an ingredient in legal recreational drugs known as "Party pills", initially in New Zealand and subsequently in other countries around the world.

Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP)

A recreational drug of the piperazine chemical class. Usually in combination with its analogue benzylpiperazine (BZP), it is sold as a legal alternative to the illicit drug MDMA under the name "Legal X".

4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA)

A designer drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. It acts as a non-neurotoxic highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) in animals. It is distantly related to several other SSRAs, including MMAI, MDAI, and MDMAI.

5-Methyl-3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (5-Me-MDA)

An entactogen and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine class. It is a ring-methylated derivative of MDA and a structural isomer of MDMA. Drug discrimination studies showed that 5-methyl-MDA substitutes for MDA, MMAI, and LSD, but not amphetamine, suggesting that it produces a mix of entactogen and hallucinogenic effects without any stimulant effects.

5-(2-Aminopropyl)Benzofuran (5-APB)

A drug claimed to act as an agonist of the 5-HT2C receptor, which has been sold as a designer drug. Anecdotal reports from users suggest it has stimulant and empathogenic effects, but less psychedelic action than related compounds such as 6-APB and 5-APDB.

6-(2-Aminopropyl)Benzofuran (6-APB)

A stimulant and entactogen drug although to date, no authoritative source can say even whether or not it is psychoactive. Chemically, it is of the phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine classes. It is similar to MDA in that the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring system has been replaced with a benzofuran ring.

Alpha-Ethyltryptamine (AET)

Also known as etryptamine, is a psychedelic, stimulant and entactogen of the tryptamine chemical class. A short-acting synthetic psychedelic that was first sold as a pharmaceutical antidepressant (Monase) in 1961. It was emergency scheduled on March 12, 1993 and has remained uncommon since.

Butylone (bk-MBDB)

An entactogen, psychedelic, and stimulant of the phenethylamine chemical class. It is the β-keto analogue of MBDB. Butylone was first synthesized by Koeppe, Ludwig and Zeile which is mentioned in their 1967 paper. It remained an obscure product of academia until 2005 when it was synthesized by a chemical supply company, and has since continued to be sold as a research chemical. It has since been explored as a possible entheogen.

Ethylone (bk-MDEA)

An entactogen, stimulant, and psychedelic of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes. It is the β-keto analogue of MDEA ("Eve"). Ethylone has only a short history of human use and is reported to be less potent than its relative methylone. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity.

Indanylaminopropane (IAP)

An entactogen and psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes. It has been sold by online vendors through the internet and has been encountered as a designer drug since 2003, but its popularity has diminished in recent years.

Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (MBDB)

A synthetic phenethylamine similar in structure and action to MDMA (Ecstasy). It is an entactogen, with the ability to facilitate a state of introspection, interpersonal communication and a pronounced sense of empathy and compassion. It has a slower and more gentle onset of action than MDMA, produces less euphoria, less psychedelic effects, and has less stimulant properties. Many people find it less fun than MDMA because of its more subtle nature and lack of strong rush. It is extremely uncommon, but has occasionally been found in "Ecstasy" tablets in Europe.

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

MDA is a synthetic empathogen sometimes found in ecstasy tablets. It is closely related to MDMA though its effects are said to be slightly more psychedelic.

5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-Aminoindane (MDAI)

A drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. It acts as a non-neurotoxic and highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) in vitro and produces entactogen effects in humans. It first became available via online vendors in 2009. Its effects are sometimes compared to MDMA (ecstasy), although significantly weaker and less stimulating.

6,7-Methylenedioxy-2-Aminotetralin (MDAT)

A drug developed in the 1990s by a team at Purdue University led by David E. Nichols. It appears to act as a serotonin releasing agent based on rodent drug discrimination assays comparing it to MDMA, in which it fully substitutes for, and additionally lacks any kind of serotonergic neurotoxicity. Hence, it is considered likely to be a non-neurotoxic, putative entactogen in humans.

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Methylamphetamine (MDMA)

An entactogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of drugs. In popular culture, it has become widely known as "ecstasy", usually referring to its street pill form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. It can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, and diminished anxiety.

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Ethylamphetamine (MDEA)

An entactogen, psychedelic, and stimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Like MDMA, it acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine releasing agent. It requires a slightly larger dose (100 - 180 mg) than MDMA (80 -140 mg), with major effects lasting typically between 3 - 5 hours.

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Methylcathinone (Methylone, M1)

An entactogen and stimulant of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes. It was originally patented by Jacob Peyton and Alexander Shulgin in 1996 as an antidepressant. It is a close structural analogue of MDMA, differing by the addition of a β-ketone group.

3-Methoxy-4-Methylamphetamine (MMA)

An entactogen and psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes. It was first synthesized in 1970 and was encountered as a street drug in Italy in the same decade. It was largely forgotten until being reassayed by David E. Nichols as a non-neurotoxic MDMA analogue in 1991, and has subsequently been sold as a designer drug on the internet since the late 2000s.

Para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA, 4-MA)

A serotonergic drug of the amphetamine class, originating in the 1970s. Unlike other similar drugs of this family, it does not produce stimulant, euphoriant, or entactogen effects, and behaves more like an antidepressant in comparison, though it does have some psychedelic properties. It has been occasionally found in tablets labeled as MDMA.

Para-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA)

A stimulant and psychedelic drug closely related to the amphetamine-class serotonergic drug para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). It is the 4-methoxy analog of methamphetamine. It has been found in tablets and capsules of the MDMA sold as "ecstasy". A number of deaths have been attributed to tablets sold as ecstasy that contained other substances, such as its structural analog, PMA.

Para-Methoxyethylamphetamine (PMEA)

A stimulant drug related to PMA. It reputedly produces similar effects to PMA, but is considerably less potent and seems to have slightly less tendency to produce severe hyperthermia, at least at low doses. At higher doses however the side effects and danger of death approach those of PMA itself, and it should still be considered a potentially dangerous drug.

Alpha-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP)

A stimulant drug. It is similar in structure to the appetite suppressant diethylpropion and has analogous effects in animals. Little is known about this compound, but it has been detected by laboratories in Germany as an ingredient in "ecstasy" tablets seized by law enforcement authorities.

2-Fluoroamphetamine

A stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has rarely been sold as a designer drug. In addition, this drug and amphetamine have been found to act as potent agonists at the trace amine-associated receptor TAAR1.

4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA, PAL-303)

A psychoactive drug and research chemical of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It produces stimulant and possibly entactogenic effects. It is a relatively rare drug on the illicit market. A potent stimulant, the subjective effects of it include euphoria, increased energy, mood elevation, excessive talking, bruxism (jaw clenching), insomnia and suppressed appetite.

4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX)

A stimulant drug of the 2-amino-5-aryloxazoline class that was first synthesized in 1960. It is also known by its street names "U4Euh" ("Euphoria") and "Ice". It is banned in many countries as a stimulant. It has effects comparable to methamphetamine but with a longer duration; a half-life of 10 - 19 hours.

Buphedrone (MABP)

A stimulant of the phenethylamine and cathinone chemical classes that was first synthesized in 1928. It has similar effects to methcathinone but is several times more potent by weight.

Camfetamine

A stimulant drug closely related to the appetite suppressant fencamfamine. It has been sold as a designer drug following the banning of mephedrone and related substituted cathinone derivatives in many countries, and reportedly has slightly stronger stimulant effects than fencamfamine, but with correspondingly more severe side effects.

Desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP)

A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and developed by Ciba in the 1950s. It is closely related on a structural level to the compounds methylphenidate and pipradrol, all three of which share a similar pharmacological action. Of these three piperidines, it has the longest elimination half-life (16 - 20 hours). It might prove quite useful for its original application of treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression.

Dimethocaine

A local anesthetic with stimulant properties that some studies have shown to be half the potency of cocaine. User reports indicate little euphoria and only mild stimulating effects, with many users failing to perceive any recreational effects whatsoever.

Diphenylprolinol (D2PM)

A relatively mild norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor which is used as a designer drug. The effects are said to be similar to other NDRIs, producing mild stimulation (at least in relation to substances like methamphetamine or cocaine) which is productive for working or studying, but with relatively little euphoria. Similar drugs to diphenylprolinol include pipradrol, desoxypipradrol, and to a lesser extent, methylphenidate.

Ethcathinone (ETH-CAT)

A stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes. It is an active metabolite of the prodrug diethylcathinone and is fully responsible for its effects. Ethcathinone has been identified as an ingredient in both quasi-legal "party pills", and, along with mephedrone, has also been reported as having been sold as "ecstasy" in the Australian city of Cairns.

Ethylphenidate (EP)

A potent psychostimulant that acts as both a dopamine reuptake inhibitor and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, meaning it effectively boosts the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It has a near-identical dopaminergic pharmacodynamic profile as methylphenidate, which is primarily responsible for its euphoric and reinforcing effects. (Ethanol + Methlyphenidate).

Flephedrone (4-FMC)

A stimulant drug of the cathinone chemical class. It started to be sold as a designer drug in 2008, along with its structural isomer 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC). It only a short history of human use and its toxicity is not well established. Hyperthermia, convulsions and other typical complications may be expected in overdose.

Methylhexanamine

Although intended by Eli Lilly to be used as a nasal decongestant, this has been marketed as a dietary supplement in combination with caffeine and other ingredients, under trade names such as Geranamine and Floradrene, to be used as an OTC thermogenic or general purpose stimulant.

Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

A psychoactive drug with stimulant properties which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). First developed in 1969 it remained an obscure stimulant until reportedly it has been sold since around 2004 as a designer drug. Reportedly, it has four times the potency of methylphenidate, although its pharmacology has only recently been studied in detail.

Mephedrone (4-MCC)

A synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. It is reportedly manufactured in China and is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines, and cocaine.

Para-Methoxymethcathinone (Methedrone, PMMC)

A stimulant and entactogen drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes. It is closely related to para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), methylone and mephedrone, and likely has a similar pharmacological profile. Subjective effects have been reported similar to both MDMA and amphetamines, producing responses such as increased sociability, euphoria, disinhibition, energy and stimulation. Physiological responses include pupil dilation, hyperthermia and increased perspiration.

Methiopropamine (MPA)

A thiophene-based structural analog of methamphetamine originally reported in 1942. It originally appeared for public sale in the UK in December 2010 as a "research chemical" or "legal high". It gained limited popularity as a recreational stimulant due to its relatively mild euphoria in comparison to other common stimulants like amphetamine, instead being described as clear headed, a more functional stimulant.

Naphyrone (O-2482)

A drug derived from pyrovalerone that acts as a triple reuptake inhibitor, producing stimulant effects and has been reported as a novel designer drug. No safety or toxicity data is available on the drug.

Pentedrone

A designer drug with presumably stimulant effects, which has been found since 2010 as an ingredient in a number of "bath salt" mixes sold as legal highs.

Pentylone (bk-MBDP)

A stimulant compound developed in the 1960s, which has been reported as a novel designer drug, identified in some samples of powders sold as "NRG-1", along with varying blends of other substituted cathinone derivatives including flephedrone, MDPBP, MDPV and MPPP. It was also found in combination with MPPP being sold as "NRG-3".

1,4-Butanediol (1, 4; 1,4-BDO)

Known by some users as "One Comma Four", "One Four Bee" or "One Four B-D-O". It exerts effects similar to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which is a metabolic product of 1,4-butanediol. Anecdotal reports indicate that it produces a strong toxic feeling not present with GHB when ingested.

2-Methyl-2-Butanol (2M2B)

It is one of the isomers of amyl alcohol. It is a clear, colorless liquid with a strong odor of peppermint or camphor. In humans it possesses sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects similar to ethanol through ingestion or inhalation, and was previously used in medicine for this purpose. It is active in doses of 2,000 - 4,000mg, making it some 20 times more potent than regular ethanol.

Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL)

A hygroscopic colorless oily liquid with a weak characteristic odor and is soluble in water. It is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry and is used as an aroma compound, as a stain remover, as a superglue remover, and as a paint stripper. In humans it acts as a prodrug for GHB, and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol.

Gamma-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV)

A psychoactive drug and designer drug which is structurally and pharmacologically related to both gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is sometimes seen on the black market as a legal alternative to GHB, but with lower potency and higher toxicity, which has tended to limit its recreational abuse.

Methylmethaqualone (MMQ)

An analogue of methaqualone which has similar sedative and hypnotic properties to its parent compound, and is around the same potency. It was made illegal in Germany in 1999 and listed by the DEA as a "drug of forensic interest". Animal studies of have shown it to produce convulsions at only slightly above the effective sedative dose

Mebroqualone

An analogue of mecloqualone which presumably has similar sedative and hypnotic properties to its parent compound. It was made illegal in Germany in 1998, this compound was sold on the black market in Germany as a designer drug analogue of mecloqualone.

Benzylbutylbarbiturate

A rare example of a barbiturate designer drug, possibly the only such compound encountered in recent years. It was confiscated by police in Japan in 2000, and presumably was a product of clandestine manufacture as this compound has never previously been sold as a legal pharmaceutical.

Phenazepam

A benzodiazepine drug, which was developed in the Soviet Union and now produced in Russia and some CIS countries. It augments the effects of anesthetics and reduces anxiety. Recently, it has gained popularity as a recreational drug. Side effects include hiccups, dizziness, loss of coordination and drowsiness, along with anterograde amnesia which can be quite pronounced at high doses.

Premazepam

A benzodiazepine derivative. It is a partial agonist of benzodiazepine receptors and has been shown to possess both anxiolytic and sedative properties in human subjects. It possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties. It also produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of this is approximately equivalent to 5 mg of diazepam.

Etizolam

A thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog. It possesses amnesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is marketed under the brand name Etilaam, Etizola, Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas.

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