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denotation

the literal or dictionary meaning of a word

connotation

the idea of feeling implied by a word in addition to its literal meaning

formal language

language usually used in speeches, reports, essays, and most other nonfiction writing

informal language

everyday language that may incluse slang or idioms

slang

very informal words or expressions, such as YAKKING,BADmeaning GOOD, AIN'T and YOU ROCK!

idioms

informal expressions or phrases that can't be taken literally, such as "head over heels in love," "fit as a fiddle," or "you hit the nail on the head."

diction

an author's choice of words and their use

author's purpose

a writer's reason for writing; can include reasons for using words

simile

a comparison of two things using LIKE or AS

metaphor

a direct comparison of two things

analogy

a comparison of two thngs that are similar in more than one way

context clues

words and phrases in a sentence or a paragraph that are understood and can be used to determine a word or phrase that is not understood

synonyms

words that have similar meanings, such as SMALL and LITTLE

antonyms

words that have the opposite meanigs, such as SMALL and LARGE

author's purpose

a writer's reason for writing

text structure

different ways for writers to present or organize information; for example using description, comparing or contrasting, using chronological order, giving cause and effect, etc.

imagery

the use of words that appeal to the senses to give the reader a mental picture

compare

to explain or describe similarities

contrast

to explain or describe differences

sequential(or chronological) order

gives events in the order that they occurred in time, first, second, third, and so on

processs(or procedural) order

gives the steps of a process in the order they should be performed

order of importance

organizes details, reasons, etc. in the order of their importance

spatial order

organizes the description of items according to thier position or closeness to each other

cause and effect

a relationship that explains how things makes something else happen

problem and solution

a relationship that shows how a conflict or issue (the problem) is answered (the solution)

description

using details or imagery

fact

a statement that can be proven or verified as being true

opinion

a statement based on feelings or beliefs

advertising

the use of a media soruce (television, newspaper, magazine, radio, billboard) to promote something

tv commentary

an article that expresses the opinions of the writer

letter to the editor

a letter form a reader that is sent to a newspaper or magazine editor to express the opinions of that reader

nonfiction

writing that is about real events or facts

political speech

a speech made by someone who holds or wishes to hold a political office and meant to persuade listeners

essay

nonfiction writing o a specific topic for a specific purpose

literary nonfiction

a true-life story

persuade

to cause someone to believe or to do something

inference

the use of reasoning to draw a conclusion based on evidence

complete sentence

is a group of words that expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb

declarative sentence

makes a statement and ends with a period

interrogative sentence

asks a question and ends with a question mard

exclamatory sentence

makes a strong statement and ends with an exclamation point

inperative sentence

makes a request or gives a command

fragment

is a part of sentence or a mistake in writing

conjunction

joins words or groups of words

coordinate conjunction

join equal words, phrases, or sentences

clause

a group of words with a subject and a verb

simple sentence

one main clause

compound sentence

two or more main clauses, or complete thoughts

complex sentence

has a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses

adverb clause

another type of subordinate clause in a complex sentence

complete sentence

group of words that expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verbb

declarative sentence

makes a statement and ends with a period

interrogative sentence

asks a question and ends with a question mark

literary element

characteristics of texts often seen in fictional and nonfictional stories and poetry, but they can also be seen in other types of nonfiction; examples of elements include setting, characterization, mood, theme, etc.

diction

an author's choice of words

figurative language

language that is not meant to be understood literary and includes the use of simile, metaphor, analogy, personification, hyperbole, oxymoron, idiom, symbolism, irony, and paradox

setting

the time and place of a story; includes its surroundings and environment

mood

the feeling created n the reader

tone

the writer's attitude towards the subject

atmosphere

the feeling created by mood, tone, and setting

summary

a shorter version of a text that gives only the main points

precis

another word for a summary that has certain specific characteristics

idiom

an expression, such as "it's raining cats and dogs," that cannot be understood from the definitions of the individual words ( cannot be iterpreted literally)

expication

a type of explanation that interprets or clarifies a text

electronic text

literature, poetry, dictionaries, encyclopedia, biographies, etc. that are in an electronic (computerized) format instead of written on paper

abstract

a very brief summary of a much longer text

paraphrase

to reword text in your own words

plagiarism

using someone else's ideas or copying someone else's exact words and claiming them as your own in a report, research paper, etc.

synthesize

to put together information from more than one source

sequential( or chronological) order

gives the steps of a process in the order they should be performed

order of importance

organizes details, reasons, etc. in the order of their importance

spatial order

organizes the desription of items according to their position or closeness to each other

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