global and regional patterns of distribution, past and present
potential vs actual range (competition, habitat preferences, can test by tranplant experiments); introduced species
Biotic factors affect distribution...
predation; disease, parasitism, competition, lack of pollinators for plants, can test by adding or removing a species
Abiotic factors can affect distribution..
temp, water (salinity and pH), sunlight
where are the deserts of the world generally located?
30 degrees above and below equator
What happens at 60 degrees north and sourth?
air masses rise again, cool, and release precipitation, but not as much as at the equator, so colder
Wind patterns are due to....
the rotation of the planet; air at equator moves faster than at poles; winds are named by the direction from which they come
tropids have ____ trade winds; temperate zones have _____ trade winds
what is the north/south slope difference?
north has cooler, moister climate, trees,; south is warmer and drier;shrubs and grass; on north side will see vegetation that you would see higher on a south-facing slope (THIS IS ALL FOR NORTHERN HEMISPHERE)
temp decreases ___ degrees F for every 1000 feet you go up; going up 1000 feet is like going north about ______ miles
on windward side, clouds approach, bringing moisture; as the air rises, it cools; cool air cannot hold as much moisture, so moisture comes out of the clouds as rain/snow; on leeward side, air has lost most of moisture, as it descends down the mount on the other side, it warms up; warm air can hold more moisture so it absorbs moisture from air and land (equal desert)
a very gind scale pattern of climate; ie shade of tree, rock blocks wind, fallen logs provides shelter
5 places (Calif, Chile, mediterranean sea, south africa, parts of Australia); mild winter and springs, dry warm summer; little or no rainfall for 4-6 months; plants have small thick waxy stiff leaves; vertically oriented leaves, curled leaves, hairs, lighter color, allelopathic compounds prevent other plants from growing nearby and competing for soil water;
Long term climate change...
aka global warming; tree ranges have moved northward since the end of the last glaciers
major zone characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes and by the physical environment in aquatic biomes
where 2 biomes meet; can be a gradual change or abrupt
What are the vertical layers of some terrestrial habitats?
canopy, lower trees, shurbs/understory, ground plants, forest floor/litter
the same biome in different parts of the world may have completely unrelated plants and animals due to...
What are the 8 terrestrial biomes?
tropical forest, desert, savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf (deciduous), tundra
narrow layer of abrupt T change that serparates the upper warm water from the lower cold water
Marine has ____% salinity; freshwater has ______%; brakish is ____
3; 1; in between
turnover in aquatic environments
twice annual occurence in many temperate lakes; bring oxygen rich water from the surface to the bottom and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the top; increases the productivity of the ecosystem
freshwater, clear, low productivity, low nutrients, many fish, invertebrates, little phytoplankton or plants; little pollution
freshwater, murky, high productivity, high nutrients, many phytoplankton, few others, high nutrient input
fresh or salt; very high productivity, high nutrients, invetebrates, birds, plants, marshes/swamps
fresh and salt; very high productivity, high nutrients, grasses, phytoplankton, fish, invertebrates, birds, plants, river meets a sea
salt; moderate productivity, high nutrients; invertebrates; plants, mollusks, harsh changing conditions
coral reef biome...
salt; low productivity; good nutrients; coral; easily destroyed
salt; low productivity and nutrients; phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish; susceptible to overfishing
salt; high productivity in shallow areas, variable nutrients; bottom of ocean
200-400cm; warm/hot; poor soil; very high diversity; high productivity; dense trees; epiphytes; very stratified
tropical deciduous forest..
dry; 150 - 200 cm; mild temp; rich soil; moderate diversity; moderate productivity; deciduous trees; wet and dry seasons
30 - 50 cm; mild temp; clay soil; moderate diversity and productivity; wet and dry season
less than 30 cm; hot/cold; poor/sandy/rocky soil; moderate diversity; very low productivity; CAM; rodernt; ectotherms
30 - 50 cm; mild; moderate soil; moderate diversity; low productivity;
30 - 100 cm, summer hot; rich coil; moderate diversity; low productivity
temperate deciduous forest
70 - 200 cm; cold/warm; rich soil; rich diversity; moderate productivity
over 300 cm; mild/cool temp; rocky/acidic soil; low diversity; temperate rainforest
taiga (boreal forest/ upper russia)
12 inches rain; cold/mild; poor acidic soil; moderate diversity and productivity; cold dry winter; mild humid summer
9 inches; more in alpine; mild and very cold temp; poor soil; low diversity; very low productivity; no trees; small shrubs; permafrost