How did Islam have strong leaders and armies?
They conquered without fighting and negotiated treaties.
How was Islam tolerent to the conquered people?
The conquered people can covert or pay a tribute (if none they get killed) and they are allowed to practice religion (Christians and Jews were considered "People of the Book"
What were the conqueres seen as?
Who was the Sucessor after Muhammad, and what was his ruling period?
Abu Bakr, 632-634AD
What was Abu Bakr known to as Muhammad?
A friend, and Muhammad's father-in-law (convert)
What was Abu called, and what does it mean?
Caliph, "Sucessor to the prophet"
What was Abu known for?
Unifying tribes, and expanding the empire north
What modern day country did Abu expand to?
From what period did 'Umar rule?
What was umar known for?
He was a strong leader, and expands the empire to iraq, persia, and north africa (3 of muslims grow)
From what period did 'Uthman rule?
What was Uthman known for
expanding the empire to egypt
How did Utman die?
He was murdered by rebles
How was Uthman controversial?
He appointed relatives to important positions
What is nepotism?
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
Who succeeded after Uthman, and when was his ruling period?
How was Ali related to muhammad?
He was his son in law and cousin
How was Ali murdered?
by Uthman's relatives
When did Mu'awiyah rule?
What does Mu'awiyah create?
A rift between islamic community (sunni/Shi'ah)
Who was Mu'awiyah related to?
When was the civil war?
Who did the Sunni Believer should suceed Muhammad?
A qualified leader that would be chosen by the leaders of the Islamic community (stong, pious-religious)
Who did the Shi'ah Believer should suceed Muhammad?
What is an imam?
A decendant of 'Ali
How did the Sunni thing the religious disagreements should be settled?
By the leaders, using the Qur'an
How did the Shi'ah thing the religious disagreements should be settled?
An imam because its infallible
Why is an imam infallible?
Becasue Muhammad is always right, and he was a prophet
What does infallible mean?
incampable of being wrong
How many percent of muslims are sunni?
What are the top 3 countries the Sunni live in?
Egypt, Turkey, Algeria
What are the top 3 countries the Shi'ah live in?
Lebanon, Iraq, Iran
What is a Sufi?
a muslim mystic who lived simple lives centered on God
What is a mystic?
A spiritual person
What is a Sufi like?
How do sufi's center their lives on god?
They pray, meditate, and fast
What did Rabi'ah al "adawiyah wtire?
she wrote spiritual poetry
Why did Rabi'ah al "adawiyah's owner let her free?
He was amazed by her religiousness
Who were the Berbers?
A northern african tribe, which was an ethnic group
When were the berbers conquered, and what did they convert to?
700's, converted to Islam
Who was Tariq?
A berber general (Islam)
What does Tariq try to conquer?
what does Tariq have to cross to get to spain, and what does it mean?
The Strait of Gibraltar which means the Rock of Jabal Tariq
Who were the moors, and when did they rule spain?
Spanish muslims, who ruled spain in the 700's
When were the turks?
Where did the turks originally come from and where did they migrate to?
Came from central asia and migrated to east (syria)
What were the Turks known as?
What is a steppe?
A large, grassy plain strching across Eastern Europe and central asia that is ideal for agriculture
What is a sultan
a person who ruled the turks and claimed to serve the caliph
What did the Seljug convert to?
What shifted in power?
The caliph to the Sultan
When did the turks conquer Asia monor from constatinople?
When did the ottoman turks conquer constantinople?
What was the Ottoman's secret weapon?
What was the Praise of Jihad?
it was a struggle to defend the faith; a struggle to do the right thing
Where did the muslims go to pray?
Was there a n official clergy in a mosque was there any religious pictures in a mosque
what did the muslims pray on if there wasnt any furnishings in a mosque
a pray mat
How did woman pray
what dioes it mean that there were no elaborate ceremonies
they just pray
What could the muslims not drink and eat
pork and alcohol
what is polygomy
it allowed men to mary up to 4 wives
how man wifes could a man marry
Why did they allow slavery
muslim ask for humane treatment
could free muslims be slaves