Mrs. Cleveland - Ch 22 and 24 Vocabulary - 4-19-12

55 terms by Horizonboy

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Sporophyte

diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism

Gametophyte

haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism

Bryophyte

nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives

Rhizoid

in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil

Gemma

small cup-shaped structure in liverworts that contains many haploid cells, used for asexual reproduction

Protonema

mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination

Antheridium

male reproductive structure in some algae and plants

Archegonium

female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts

Vascular tissue

type of plant tissue specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout a plant

tracheid

hollow plant cell in xylem tissue with thick cell walls that resist pressure

xylem

vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant

phloem

vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

lignin

substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid

root

underground organ in plants that absorbs water and minerals

leaf

photosynthetic organ that contains one or more bundles of vascular tissue

vein

in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves

stem

supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them

rhizome

creeping or underground stem in ferns

frond

large leaf of a fern

sporangium

structure in ferns and some fungi that contains spores

sorus

cluster of sporangia on the underside of fern frond

gymnosperm

seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones

angiosperm

flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed

cone

in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure

flower

seed-bearing structure of an angiosperm

pollen grain

male gametophyte in seed plants

pollination

transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure

seed

embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply

embryo

organism in its early stage of development

seed coat

structure that surrounds and protects a plant embryo and keeps it from drying out

fruit

wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed

monocot

angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon

dicot

angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons

cotyledon

first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant

annual

flowering plant that completes a life cycle within one growing season

biennial

flowering plant that completes its life cycle in two years

perennial

flowering plant that lives for more than two years

pollen cone

cone in gymnosperms that produces male gametophytes in the form of pollen grains

seed cone

cone that produces female gametophytes

ovule

structure in seed cones in which female gametophytes develop

pollen tube

structure grown by a pollen grain; contains two haploid sperm nuclei

sepal

outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing

petal

brightly colored structure just inside the sepals; attracts insects and other pollinators to a flower

stamen

male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament

filament

in algae, a long threadlike colony formed by many green algae; in plants, a long, thin structure that supports an anther

anther

flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced

carpel

innermost part of a flower that produces the female gametophytes

ovary

in plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced

style

narrow stalk of the carpel in a flower

stigma

sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land

embryo sac

female gametophyte within the ovule of a flowering plant

endosperm

food-rich tissue that nourishes a seedling as it grows

double fertilization

fertilization in angiosperms, in which two distinct fertilization events take place between the male and female gametophytes

dormancy

period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing

germination

early growth stage of a plant embryo

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