The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following
A. adrenal gland.
B. smooth muscle in the walls of the aorta.
C. cardiac muscle in the right atrium.
E. parotid salivary gland.
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following
A. changing the diameter of the pupil.
B. adjusting heart rate and force.
C. altering salivary mucus secretion.
D. regulating gastrointestinal motility.
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
C. sensory receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → gland
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
. excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood
to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ____ its beats per minute.
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this
effector pathway in the visceral reflex arc involves more neurons
The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
These are all features of the sympathetic division
it originates in the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord.
. it has long postganglionic fibers.
. its ganglia are adjacent to the spinal column.
. it has an extensive neural divergence and a relative widespread effect.
These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division
. its effects are local.
. the terminal ganglia are very close to or within their target organs.
. it originates in the craniosacral regions of the CNS.
. it has short postganglionic fibers.
This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What does structure "3"
preganglionic sympathetic fiber
This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What structure(s) is(are)
not associated with the autonomic nervous system?
Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic
neurons. This results in
the sympathetic nervous system having a relative widespread effect.
The solar plexus is used as a name for
either the celiac and mesenteric ganglia or with celiac ganglia only.
This figure shows a division of the autonomic nervous system. The label __ represents the Vagus
Nerve (CN X).
White rami carry ____ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic
These are all characteristics of the enteric nervous systems
it does not arise from the spinal cord.
it innervates smooth muscle.
. it innervates glands.
. it does not arise from the brainstem.
All of the following are under dual control of the ANS
. pupil diameter.
. heart rate.
. salivary gland activity.
. gastrointestinal motility.
Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine
Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the
___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
Sympathetic effects tend to last ___ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that ___.
longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter
preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)
Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely
decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant.
A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in
the brain called _____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.
Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?
postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.
The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in
All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there.
The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell.
Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a
beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory.