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Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

Innate immunity is

The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

Lysozyme

The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to

Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?

Neutrophils

TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT

AMPs

Which of the following CANNOT be determined from a differential count?

The number of red blood cells

The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the activation of

C3

Which of the following does NOT increase blood vessel permeability?

Lysozymes

Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?

Neutrophils-monocytes

Margination refers to

Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels

Which of the following statements is true?

Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages

Which of the following is found normally in serum?

Complement

Which of the following is NOT an effect of complement activation?

Interference with viral replication

Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?

Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

Which of the following is NOT a way in which normal microbiota provide protection from infection?

They produce lysozome

Which of the following does NOT provide protection from phagocytic digestion?

Causing formation of phagolysosomes

Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?

Toll-like receptors

The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid

Goes into lymph capillaries

Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is false?

They develop from neutrophils

Which of the following is NOT used by phagocytes to adhere to a microorganism?

Lysozyme

Which of the following is NOT an effect of histamine?

Fever

Which of the following is NOT a function of inflammation?

To produce antibodies

Chill is a sign that

Body temperature is rising

Which of the following statements is true?
A. There are at least 30 compliment proteins
B. All of the complement proteins are always active in serum
C. Factors B,D, and P cause cytolysis
D. Complement activity is antigen specific
E. Complement increases after immunization

There are at least 30 complement proteins

Which of the following is NOT a result of complement fixation?

Acute local inflammation

Which of the following is NOT part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons?

They inactivate viruses

The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by

Polysaccharides and C3b

The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by

Antigen-antibody reactions

Activation of C3a results in

Fever

Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to

Produce toxic oxygen products

In Figure 16.1, what happens next?

C2a and C4b activate C3

After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT

Complement

Activation of C5-C9 results in

Leakage of cell contents

A C-reactive protein (CRP) test was ordered for a patient who recently underwent surgery. The results revealed CRP levels 10 times greater than normal. This indicates

Inflammation

Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?

Eosinophil

Macrophages arise from which of the following?

Monocyte

Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A. Basophil
B. Eosinophil
C. Dendritic cell
D. Natural killer cell
E. Neutrophil

Natural killer cell

Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron; humans counter this by

Transferrins

All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
A. Diapedesis
B. Margination
C., Phagocyte migration
D. Repair
E. Vasodilation

Vasodilation

The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by

Mannose on the parasite

Which one of the following is NOT an effect of fever

Kills pathogens

Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the most severe?

Deficiency of C3

Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is false?

C3 is not involved in the classical pathway

Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from

Phagocytic digestion

Serum is obtained from blood by

Coagulating whole blood

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