a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
the first stage in Piaget's theory, during which the child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli
the second stage in Piaget's theory, marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Concrete Operational Stage
the third of Piaget's stages, when a child understands conversation but still is incapable of abstract thought
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Theory of Mind
an awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own
individuals characteritc manner of behavior or reaction assumed to have a strong genetic basis
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Physical features that are associated with gender but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
Formal Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
development, contact comfort, attachment; experimented with baby rhesus monkeys and presented them with cloth or wire "mothers;" showed that the monkeys became attached to the cloth mothers because of contact comfort
moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Fetal alcohol syndrome
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
In observational learning, a generalized idea that captures the important components, but not every exact detail. Pertaining to memory and person perception, a generalized idea about objects, people, and events that are encountered frequently.
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes: singly in males and doubly in females
your identity as it is experienced with regard to your individuality as male or female
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning