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Intrapulmonary Pressure

-Pressure inside the alveoli
-Size of the pressure difference varies greatly with degree of physical activity and conditioning.

Intrapleural pressure

-Pressure between the parietal and visceral pleurae.
-Prevents lungs from collapsing too much by opposing the recoil of the elastic fibers in the lung tissue.
-4 mmHg (average) to -18 mmHg during powerful inhalation.

Respiratory Pump

-Results from the cyclical changes in the intrapleural pressure

Tidal volume (TV)

-Amount of air moved into (inhale) or out of (exhale) lungs during a single respiratory cycle.

Resting tidal volume

-Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions.
-500 ml in both males and females

Expiratory reserve volume (EVR)

-The amount of air that you can voluntarily expel AFTER you have completed a normal, quite respiratory cycle.
-1000-1200 ml
-Use your accessory expiratory muscles

Residual Volume

-Amount of air remaining in the lungs even after a maximal exhalation.
--1200 ml in males; 1100 ml in females

Minimal Volume

-Amount of air that remains in the lungs even after complete collapse.
-30-120 ml (surfactant prevents collapse of alveolar surfaces).
-Cannot be measured in a healthy, living person.

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

-Amount of air that can be taken in over and above the tidal volume
-IRV in males is about 3300 ml
-IRV in females is about 1900 ml

Inspiratory capacity

-The amount of air that can be drawn into the lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle has been completed.
-IC = TV + IRV

Functional Residual capacity (FRC)

-Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle has been completed.
-FRC = ERV + RV

Vital capacity

-Maximum amount of air that can move into or out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle.
-VC = ERV + TV + IRV
-VC = 4800 ml in males; 3400 ml in females

Total lung capacity

-The total volume of the lungs.
-TLC = VC + RV
-TLC = 6000 ml in males; 4500 ml in females

Breaths you take each minute

-Resting adult rate ranges from 12 to 18 breaths each minute.
-Approximately one breath for every four heartbeats
-Children take 18-20 breaths/minute

Respiratory Minute Volume

-Amount of air moved each minute (VE)

Alveolar Ventilation

-Respiratory minute volume indicates how much air is moving into and out of the respiratory tract.
-Not all of the air actually contacts the respiratory membranes of alveoli.

Atomic Dead Space

-The volume of air staying in the conducting passageways is the ?

Alveolar Ventilation

-Alveolar ventilation rate is more important than the respiratory minute volume, because it determines the rate of delivery of oxygen to the alveoli

Hyperpnea

-Forced breathing.
-Involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements.
-Requires use of accessory muscles of respiration

Spirometry

-Used to differentiate between obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
-Determine the extent or progress of the disease

Increased Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) occurs in?

-Obstructive diseases
-Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis

Decreased or normal FRC occurs in?

-Restrictive diseases
-Pulmonary fibrosis

Forced vital capacity

-Measures the amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath and then exhales forcefully and rapidly.
-FVC is reduced in patients with restrictive pulmonary disease.

Forced expiratory volume

-Same procedure, but examines the percentage of the vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals of the FVC test (amount of air exhaled during the first second),
-Healthy people can exhale 75-85% of their FVC in the first second.

Each Hb molecule has?

-4 heme units and therefore can carry 4 oxygen molecules
-Therefore, each RBC can potentially carry over 1 billion oxygen molecules.

Lower pH changes?

-changes the shape of the Hb molecules and they release their oxygen more readily.

Carbonic acid-Bicarbonate buffer system

-stabilizes arterial blood pH at 7.4 +-0.02

When PCO2 rises

-The rate of carbonic acid formation increases
-H+ diffuse out of the RBCs, and plasma pH drops.

When PCO2 decreases

-H+ diffuse into the RBCs, and plasma pH rises.

Hypoventilation

- (slow, shallow breathing)
-Carbonic acid in blood increases significantly.
-Carbon dioxide builds up in the blood
-Decreases arterial blood pH (acidosis, pH lower than 7.35)

Hyperventilation

-(rapid, deep breathing)
-Carbonic acid in blood decreases.
-Carbon dioxide decreases
-Increases arterial blood pH (alkalosis, pH 7.45)

changes in pH and oxygen concentrations are monitored by ______ in the aortic and carotid bodies which stimulate the _______.

-Chemoreceptors
-Medulla

Hypercapnia

-(increase in arterial carbon dioxide typically caused by hypoventilation) sensed by chemorecerptors in carotid and aortic bodies. Stimulate neurons in medulla oblongata, respiratory centers increase rate and depth of respiration.

Hypocapnia

-(low arterial carbon dioxide typically from hyperventilation) results in decrease in chemoreceptor activity which slows respiratory rate.

The pressure inside the alveoli is called ________________.

-Intrapulmonary pressure

Intrapleural pressure is the pressure between the _________ and __________ pleurae.

-Parietal
-Visceral

Disruption of intrapleural pressure by breaking the fluid bond between the pleurae is called a pneumothorax which can result in a collapsed lung or _____________.

-Atelectasis

The amount of air moved into or out of the lungs during a single respiratory cycle is the _______________.

-Tidal volume

The amount of air that you can voluntarily expel following a quiet respiratory cycle is the ___________.

-Expiratory reserve volume

The ___________ is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation.

-Residual volume

The __________________ is the amount of air that can be take in over and above the tidal volume.

-Inspiratory reserve volume

The amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute is the _____________.

-Alveolar ventilation

Quiet breathing is called __________ and is accomplished mainly by the _________,whereas forced breathing is called _________ and requires the use of accessory respiratory muscles.

-Eupnea
-Diaphragm
-Hyperpnea

Obstructive and restrictive breathing disorders are collectively called ___________.

-dyspnea

A technique used to assess respiratory function is called _______________.

-spirometry

Hb molecules will release more/less oxygen at a pH of 7.2 than they will at pH 7.4.

...

Hypercapnia is typically a result of ____________.

-hypoventilation

Hypocapnia speeds up/slows down respiratory rate.

...

____is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.

-Resting tidal volume

In quiet breathing..

-Inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called?

-Hyperpnea

If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he/she cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he/she expelled is the

-Vital capacity

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