Soil water held so tightly by sediment grains that it is unavailable for plant use.
The amount of water remainig in the soil after the soil is completely drained of gravitational water.
The area between the soil water belt and the water table where pore spaces arenot saturated with water.
An impermeable body of rock that may contain water but does not allow transmission of water through it.
The zone of rock below and including the water table where pores spaces are completely filled with water.
A geological formation that contains a suitable amount of water to be accessed for human use.
A well in which water form a confined aquifer rises to the surface through natural pressure.
The sttling or sinking of a surface as a result of the loss of suport fom underlying water, soils, or strata.
Terrain that is generally underlain by soluble rocks, such as limestone and dolomite, where the landscape evolves largely through the dissolution of rock.
A cavity in rock, produced by the dissolution of calcium carbonate, that is lrge enough for someone to enter.
A topographic depression that forms when underlying rock dissolves, causing the surface to collapse.
A surface river or stream that flows into a sinkhole and subsequently moves into an underground river system.
The geographical area that ocntributes groundwater and runoff to any particular stream.
An area of raised land that forms a seperating rim between two adjacent drainage basins.
The amount of stream discharge at any given place and time that is solely the product of groundwater seepage.
The level at which stream discharge begins to spill out of the channel into the surrounding area.
A network of converging and diverging stream channels within an individual stream system that are seperated from each other by deposits of sand and gravel.
A stream that is capable of transporting the average sediment load provided to it over time.
A graph that illustrates the change in stream gradient in cross section along a stream from its source to its mouth.
The lowest level at which a stream can no longer lower its bed, because it flows into the ocean, a lake, or another stream.
A portion of an abandoned stream channel that is cut off from the rest of the stream by the meandering process and is filled with stagnant water.
A small ridge that develops along the channel of a stream through the deposition of relatively coarse sediment when flooding occurs.
Marsh floodplain landforms that develop behind natural levees in which fine-grained sediments settle after a flood.
A level, step-like landform that forms when a stream erodes its bed so that an essentially horizontal surface is raised relative to the channel.
A fan-shaped landform of low relief that forms where a stream flows out of an area of high relief into a broad, open plane where the gradient is less and deposition occurs.
A low, level plain that develops where a stream flows into a relatively still body of water so that its velocity decreases and alluvial deposition occurs.
An engineered structure along a river that effectively raises the height of the river bank and thus confines flood discharge.
Zone of accumulation
The geographical region where snow accumulates and feeds the growth of a glacier.
Large boulders that have been plucked and transported a great distance before they are deposited.
A landform produced by glacial abrasion and plucking that has a shallow slope on one side and a steep slope on the other side.
An elevated U-shaped valley (with respect to a glacial through) formed by a tributary alpine glacier.
A winding ridge-like feature that forms at the front or side of a glacier or between two glaciers.
A large mound of sediment deposited along the front of a slowsly melting or stationary glacier.
A lake that forms when a block of ice falls off the glacial front, is buried by glacial drift, and then melts, forming a depression that fills with water.
Laurentide Ice Sheet
The continental glacier that covered eastern Canada and parts of northeastern United States during Pleistocene Epoch.
Cordilleran Ice Sheet
The ice cap that covered much of the mountains in the northwestern part of North America during the Pleistocene Epoch.
Oxygen isotope stages
Periods of time that have distinct 0-18/0-16 ratios, which are used to reconstruct prehistoric climate change.
The theory that best explains Pleistocene glacial interglacial cycles through long-term variations in the Earth's orbited eccentricity, tilt, and axial precession.
The suite of processes involving frost aaction, permafrost, and ground ice that occurs in artic enviornments or along the margins of ice sheets.