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Soci is not...

merely common sense, opinion, or the type of analysis you see on television talk shows.

Father of Sociology (Positivism)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

Social Darwinism

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

Social Integration

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Conflict Theory

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Bureaucracy

Max Weber (1864-1920)

Symbolic Interaction

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)

The Looking-glass Self

Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929)

The Power Elite

C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)

How would a theorist from each perspective examine female prostitution? Functional Analysis Perspective

Functionalists would ask how prostitution serves society. What are the functions of prostitution?

It provides a sexual outlet for those who are not competitive in the marriage market (physically, mentally handicapped or the poor)
It provides a sexual outlet for those away from home.
It provides a sexual outlet for the kinky.
It is just a job like any other.

How would a theorist from each perspective examine female prostitution? Conflict Theory Perspective

Conflict theorists would examine how prostitution supports the status quo and propitiates inequity between powerful groups and subordinate groups.

Women have not had access to economic opportunity and have had to rely on economic support from men.
Women exchange sexual availability (a resource they control) for this support (a resource controlled by men).
Whether the woman sells her availability through prostitution or through marriage, the result is the same. Someone pays either way.

How would a theorist from each perspective examine female prostitution? Symbolic Interactionism Perspective

Interactionists would try to understand how prostitutes and others in their environment adopt and define their roles and in a sense construct a social reality.

How does the prostitute learn the trade?
What got them into the 'business'?
When do they first start to identify as a prostitute?
How do they learn to disengage from emotions?
How do they learn to get the most money for the minimum effort?
How do they learn how to take care of themselves?

Common Sense

Vague
Contradictory
Over Simplified
Unreliable

Sociological Research

Specific
Qualifies Assertions
Based on Empirical Data
Reliable

Validity

Validity refers to the appropriateness of the measures. If the measuring device actually measures what it set out to measure, then it is valid.

Reliability

Reliability refers to the consistency of the measuring device. In other words, if the study was conducted properly (for example a random sample was used instead of a convenience sample), then when you replicate the study using the same methods for the same population you should get the same results.

Strong (Unbiased) Methods

Systematic Sampling
- every nth member of the population is sampled. This is not as good as a random sample.

Simple Random Sampling
- the sample is selected in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.


Stratified Random Sampling
- the population is divided into categories that are considered important for the study and then separate random samples are taken from those categories.

Poor (biased) Methods

Convenience sampling
- quick and easy way to obtain data, but not everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected

Self Selective Sampling
- population provides information by volunteering their opinions. This is similar to convenience sampling.


Cluster Sampling
- a particular segment of the population is sampled.

Mean

The mean is also called the AVERAGE. It is the sum of all the results included in the sample divided by the number of observations.

Median

The median is the middle value of all the numbers in the sample. Half of all cases are above (or equal to) it and half of the cases are below (or equal to) it.

Mode

The mode is the most frequently observed value of the measurements in the sample. There can be more than one mode or no mode.

Correlation

Correlation is the statistic that sociologists use to determine how strongly two variables are associated with each other.

eight steps of the research process

Select a Topic, Define the Problem, Review the Literature, Formulate a Hypothesis, Choose a Research Method, Collecting the Data, Analyze the Results, Share the Results

Survery

Survey

A Survey involves the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions. The questions could be administered in interview form or they could be self-administered with a paper instrument.

Experiment

An experiment involves the measurement of differences or changes in a variable when influenced by a stimulus. Often differences between a control group (no stimulus) and an experimental group (which experiences the stimulus) are measured.

best example of a hypothesis

"Unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men."

Precise ways to measure variables in research so that comparisons can be made and replications can later be done are referred to as ________.

operational definitions

Tiffany has a keen interest in the original theories of William Sheldon regarding the relationship between body type and juvenile delinquency. She has duplicated the study using Sheldon's original methodology to see if her results are compatible to Sheldon's. Such a study illustrates the concept of ________.

replication

Phillip would like to collect information from a large number of people, but he has a limited budget. In order to sample a large number, but to keep the cost low, Phillip should use ________ as a research method.

self-administered questionnaires

Which of the following examination formats is most likely to incorporate closed-ended questions?

a multiple-choice exam

Jarod is conducting research on the homeless. For six weeks, he has lived among the homeless "24/7," sleeping on the street or at a shelter, and engaging in the same activities as the population he is studying. By doing so, Jarod has been able to gather a broad understanding of the homeless, their needs, and characteristics. In view of this, Jarod is using ________ as a method of gathering data.

participant observation

Dr. Zimbardo is examining the effect that pornographic movies have on the ways in which single men respond to the needs of women. He has one group of men watch pornographic films and another watch Three Stooges episodes. He then tests their reactions to women in need by showing them short film clips and following up with a series of questions. What research method is Dr. Zimbardo using?

the experiment

In experimental research, the variable that is the cause of change (the independent variable) must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable). This condition is called ________.

temporal priority

Matthew is completing his master's thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with a gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang member's perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?

participant observation

Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla conducted structured interviews of convicted rapists who were in prison. They divided the interviews equally between themselves, utilizing the same questions and methods. The primary objective for dividing the group of interviews equally was to ________.

reduce the chance of interviewer bias

Types of Culture

Symbolic Culture Material Culture

Material Culture

Material culture includes artifacts and technology.

Examples include:

computers, gravestones, architecture, costumes
the physical objects that may represent a culture
all things made and used by humans

Symbolic culture

Symbolic Culture includes gestures, language, values, norms, and sanctions.

Examples include:

burial rituals, gestures, superstitions, laws
the ideas, the knowledge, the values associated with appropriate behavior

Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the conviction that the way things are done in one's culture is the best, most civilized, and the most progressive.

2 types of cultural diversity

Two examples of cultural diversity are subcultures and countercultures.

Subcultures

Subcultures are groups within the dominant culture; groups whose lifestyle might be different. Examples might include homosexuals, vegetarians, teenagers, poor people, Hispanics, rich people, Yankees, Republicans, Catholics. Subcultures provide options for members of society.

countercultures

Countercultures often exhibit beliefs and values in opposition to expectations of the dominant culture. Examples might include militia groups and survivalists, old hippies, drug traffickers, outlaw motorcycle gangs, and cults.

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