Civics & Economics SOL Study Guide 1

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Five fundamental political principals that shaped our constitution and government

Consent of the Governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, representative government

People are the source of any and all govenment power

Consent of the Governed

Government is not all-powerful and may do only those things that people have given it the power to do

Limited Government

The government and those who govern are bound by the law

Rule of law

In such a system of government, the people rule

Democracy

People elect public officeholders who make laws and conduct government on their behalf

Representative Government

Five documents of American history that influenced the developement of the Constitution and constitution government

Charters of the Virginia Company of London, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

Document that guarantees the colonists the same rights given to all English citizens

Charters of the Virginia Virginia Company of London

Documents the served as a model for the Bill of Rights

Virginia Declaration of Rights

Document that claimed that people have "certain unalienable rights" (life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness) and that all people are equal under the law

Declaration of Independence

Document that created a weak central government with no power to tax or to enforce laws

Articles of Confederation

Document that guaranteed freedom of religious beliefs and opinions

Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom

Document that established the republican structure of the US government

Constitution

Reason why Articles of Confederation didn't work

Major powers resided with the states, weak central government

Under the Article of Confederation, most power resided with the

States

Which document stated grievances against the king and declared the colonies' independence from Great Britain?

Declaration of Independence

Which document protected the fundamental freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition?

The Bill of Rights

Although the Constitution created a government that guarantees majority rule, it also

Protects the rights of the minority

What is the introduction to the Constitution called?

The Preamble

What are the first words in the Preamble to the Constitution?

We the people

Why does the Preamble to the Constitution begin with the words, "We the People?"

The power of the government comes from the people

What are the reasons stated in the preamble for creating the government?

Form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, preserve the blessing of liberty

Where are the rules for amending the Constitution spelled out?

Constitution

The process for amending the Constitution is

Complex

How many amendments have been added to the Constitution?

27

What is the process for amending the Constitution?

Proposed amendment is approved by a two thirds majority of both houses and then ratified by three fourths of the states OR approved by a convention called by two thirds of the states, then ratified by three fourths of the states

Has the Constitution of Virginia been amended?

Yes

What is the process for amending the Constitution of Virginia?

Action by General Assembly or a convention, then ratified by voters of Virginia

What are 2 means of obtaining citizenship?

Birth and naturalization

Which amendment defines 'citizens' as 'all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. and subject o the jurisdiction there'of?

14th Amendment

A person with certain rights and duties under a government, and who, by birth or by choice, owes allegiance to that government

Citizen

Immigration and naturalization, particularly in the twentieth century, have led to an increasingly ______ society

Diverse

How can a person born in a different country become a US citizen?

Naturalization

To become a citizen though naturalization, what must a person demonstrate?

Knowledge of American history and principles, the ability to read, speak and write in the English language

The Constitution establishes and protects the citizen's fundamental ____ and ______.

Rights, liberties

Few rights., if any, are considered_____.

Absolute

What does it mean to say that few rights, if any, are considered absolute? Give an example.

Freedom of speech does not mean a person has right to shout "FIRE" in a crowded movie theater.

Name five first amendment freedoms

Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition

What is the 1st amendment freedom that protects people's right to peacefully gather?

Freedom of assembly

What is the 1st amendment freedom that protects people's right to make their views known to public officials?

Freedom of Petition

What is the 1st amendment freedom that gives newspaper and TV reporters the right to father and publish information, including that which criticizes the government?

Freedom of the press

What is "due process?"

The constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws

Which amendment extends the due process protection to actions of the states?

The 14th Amendment

What are some of the important duties of a citizen?

Obey laws, pay taxes, serve in the armed forces, serve on a jury or as a witness in court

Are civics duties required or voluntary?

Required

Citizens who do not fulfill their civic duties can face

Legal consequences

Unlike civic duties, civic responsible responsibilities are

Voluntary

What are some responsibilities of citizens?

Vote, hold elective office, communicate with government officials, serve in voluntary appointed officials, participate in political campaigns, keep informed, respect others

Paying taxes is a civic

Duty

Keeping informed about current issues is a civic

responsibility

Serving on a jury when called is a civic

Duty

Serving in the armed forces when called by a draft is a civic

Duty

Voting is a civic

Responsibility

Obeying the law is a civic

Duty

Volunteering to serve your community is a civic

Responsibility

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