Chapter 13 - Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles - Class Test

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The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?

every human cell
each human chromosome
the entire DNA of a single human
the entire human population
each human gene

every human cell

In the human species, all somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. Which of the following can also be true?

A plant species (privet shrubs) has 46 chromosomes per cell.
Some adult humans have 69 chromosomes per cell.
Some adult humans have 23 chromosomes per cell.
A certain fungal species has only one chromosome per cell.
A certain bacterial species has 23 chromosomes.

A plant species (privet shrubs) has 46 chromosomes per cell.

Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi.
In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring.
In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis.
Sexual reproduction requires that parents be diploid.
Asexual reproduction produces only haploid offspring.

In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring

Which of the following defines a genome?

representation of a complete set of a cell's polypeptides
the complete set of an organism's polypeptides
the complete set of a species' polypeptides
a karyotype
the complete set of an organism's genes

the complete set of an organism's genes

At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?

prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
interphase

metaphase

The human X and Y chromosomes

are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike.
are of approximately equal size and number of genes.
are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names.
include genes that determine an individual's sex.
include only genes that govern sex determination.

include genes that determine an individual's sex.

A karyotype results from which of the following?

a natural cellular arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus
an inherited ability of chromosomes to arrange themselves
the ordering of human chromosome images
the cutting and pasting of parts of chromosomes to form the standard array
the separation of homologous chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis

the ordering of human chromosome images

Which of the following best describes a karyotype?

a pictorial representation of all the genes for a species
a display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell
the combination of all the maternal and paternal chromosomes of a species
the collection of all the chromosomes in an individual organism
a photograph of all the cells with missing or extra chromosomes

a display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell

Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosomes?

an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase
failure of the egg nucleus to be fertilized by the sperm
fertilization of a 23 chromosome human egg by a 22 chromosome sperm of a closely related species
an error in the alignment of chromosomes on the metaphase plate
lack of chiasmata in prophase I

an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is

diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.
diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.
haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?

Homologous chromosomes are separated.
The chromosome number per cell is conserved.
Sister chromatids are separated.
Four daughter cells are formed.
The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end.

Homologous chromosomes are separated.

A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different.

The statement is true for mitosis only.
The statement is true for meiosis I only.
The statement is true for meiosis II only.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

The statement is true for meiosis I only

Chromatids are separated from each other.

The statement is true for mitosis only.
The statement is true for meiosis I only.
The statement is true for meiosis II only.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs.

The statement is true for mitosis only.
The statement is true for meiosis I only.
The statement is true for meiosis II only.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?

chromosome replication
synapsis of chromosomes
production of daughter cells
alignment of chromosomes at the equator
condensation of chromatin

synapsis of chromosomes

Whether during mitosis or meiosis, sister chromatids are held together by proteins referred to as cohesins. Such molecules must have which of the following properties?

They must persist throughout the cell cycle.
They must be removed before meiosis can begin.
They must be removed before anaphase can occur.
They must reattach to chromosomes during G1.
They must be intact for nuclear envelope reformation.

They must be removed before anaphase can occur.

When we see chiasmata under a microscope, that lets us know which of the following has occurred?

asexual reproduction
meiosis II
anaphase II
prophase I
separation of homologs

prophase I

To view and analyze human chromosomes in a dividing cell, which of the following is/are required?

electron microscope
radioactive staining
fluorescent staining
DNA stain and a light microscope
a stain particular to human cells

DNA stain and a light microscope

To visualize and identify meiotic cells at metaphase with a microscope, what would you look for?

sister chromatids grouped at the poles
individual chromosomes all at the cell's center
an uninterrupted spindle array
the synaptonemal complex
tetrads all aligned at the cell's center

tetrads all aligned at the cell's center

How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?

by allowing crossing over
by allowing fertilization
by increasing gene stability
by conserving chromosomal gene order
by decreasing mutation frequency

by allowing crossing over

Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.
the random nature of the fertilization of ova by sperm.
the random distribution of the sister chromatids to the two daughter cells during anaphase II.
the relatively small degree of homology shared by the X and Y chromosomes.
the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I, the random nature of the fertilization of ova by sperm, the random distribution of the sister chromatids to the two daughter cells during anaphase II, and the relatively small degree of homology shared by the X and Y chromosomes.

the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I

When homologous chromosomes crossover, what occurs?

Two chromatids get tangled, resulting in one re-sequencing its DNA.
Two sister chromatids exchange identical pieces of DNA.
Specific proteins break the two strands and re-join them with their homologs.
Each of the four DNA strands of a tetrad is broken and the pieces are mixed.
Maternal alleles are "corrected" to be like paternal alleles and vice versa.

Specific proteins break the two strands and re-join them with their homologs.

Use the following information to answer the next questions.

There is a group of invertebrate animals called rotifers, among which a particular group of species reproduces, as far as is known, only asexually. These rotifers, however, have survived a long evolutionary history without evidence of having been overcome by excessive mutations.


Since the rotifers develop from eggs, but asexually, what can you predict?

The eggs and the zygotes are all haploid.
The animals are all hermaphrodites.
While asexual, both males and females are found in nature.
All males can produce eggs.
No males can be found.

No males can be found.

Use the following information to answer the next questions.

There is a group of invertebrate animals called rotifers, among which a particular group of species reproduces, as far as is known, only asexually. These rotifers, however, have survived a long evolutionary history without evidence of having been overcome by excessive mutations.


Assuming that the eggs are diploid, tetraploid, or partially tetraploid, what mechanism may still occur without fertilization?

meiosis in each generation
meiosis in every second generation
independent assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes
meiosis in times of adverse environmental conditions
crossing over of homologs

crossing over of homologs

Use the following information to answer the next questions.

There is a group of invertebrate animals called rotifers, among which a particular group of species reproduces, as far as is known, only asexually. These rotifers, however, have survived a long evolutionary history without evidence of having been overcome by excessive mutations.


In these asexual rotifers, how does variation occur without meiosis and fertilization?

The rotifers have evolved a different mechanism to exchange DNA.
Rotifers must produce haploid spores.
Variation is caused by mutation and maintained by selection.
Some rotifers must selectively lose chromosomes.
Rotifers must live only in specialized environments.

Variation is caused by mutation and maintained by selection.

Use the following information to answer the next questions.

There is a group of invertebrate animals called rotifers, among which a particular group of species reproduces, as far as is known, only asexually. These rotifers, however, have survived a long evolutionary history without evidence of having been overcome by excessive mutations.


How is natural selection related to sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction.
Sexual reproduction results in the most appropriate and healthiest balance of two sexes in the population.
Sexual reproduction results in the greatest number of new mutations.
Sexual reproduction allows the greatest number of offspring to be produced.
Sexual reproduction utilizes far less energy than asexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction.

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is

a sperm.
an egg.
a zygote.
a somatic cell of a male.
a somatic cell of a female.

a sperm.

Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during

mitosis.
meiosis I.
meiosis II.
fertilization.
binary fission.

meiosis I.

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that

sister chromatids separate during anaphase.
DNA replicates before the division.
the daughter cells are diploid.
homologous chromosomes synapse.
the chromosome number is reduced.

sister chromatids separate during anaphase.

How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?

2
4
8
16
32

16

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