Chapter 12 - The Cell Cycle - Class Quizz

30 terms by MarkLewinthal 

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The centromere is a region in which

chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.
metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate.
chromosomes are grouped during telophase.
the nucleus is located prior to mitosis.
new spindle microtubules form at either end.

chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.

If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?

10
20
30
40
80

10

At which phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?

telophase
anaphase
prometaphase
metaphase
prophase

prophase

If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the formation of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

anaphase
prophase
telophase
metaphase
interphase

metaphase

Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

centromere
centrosome
centriole
chromatid
kinetochore

centrosome

Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells but not in animal cells?

kinetochores
Golgi-derived vesicles
actin and myosin
centrioles and centromeres
cyclin-dependent kinases

Golgi-derived vesicles

Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that

reduces cyclin concentrations.
increases cyclin concentrations.
prevents elongation of microtubules.
prevents shortening of microtubules.
prevents attachment of the microtubules to the kinetochore.

prevents shortening of microtubules.

Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?

to increase their potential energy
to allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking
to allow the chromosomes to fit within the nuclear envelope
to allow the sister chromatids to remain attached
to provide for the structure of the centromere

to allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking

Which of the following is a function of those spindle microtubules that do not attach to kinetochores?

maintaining an appropriate spacing among the moving chromosomes
producing a cleavage furrow when telophase is complete
providing the ATP needed by the fibers attached to kinetochores
maintaining the region of overlap of microtubules in the cell's center
pulling the poles of the spindles closer to one another

maintaining the region of overlap of microtubules in the cell's center

During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?

telophase
anaphase
prophase
metaphase
cytokinesis

telophase

Which of the following is (are) required for motor proteins to function in the movement of chromosomes toward the poles of the mitotic spindle?

intact centromeres
an MTOC (microtubule organizing center)
a kinetochore attached to the metaphase plate
ATP as an energy source
synthesis of cohesin

ATP as an energy source

What is a cleavage furrow?

a ring of vesicles forming a cell plate
the separation of divided prokaryotes
a groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei
the metaphase plate where chromosomes attach to the spindle
the space that is created between two chromatids during anaphase

a groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei

Which of the following proteins are involved in binary fission as well as eukaryotic mitotic division?

cyclins
Cdks
MPF
actin and tubulin
cohesins

actin and tubulin

Which of the following is released by platelets in the vicinity of an injury?

PDGF
MPF
protein kinase
cyclin
Cdk

PDGF

Which of the following is a protein maintained at constant levels throughout the cell cycle that requires cyclin to become catalytically active?

PDGF
MPF
protein kinase
cyclin
Cdk

Cdk

Which of the following triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis?

PDGF
MPF
protein kinase
cyclin
Cdk

MPF

Proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and that show fluctuations in concentration during the cell cycle, are called

ATPases.
kinetochores.
kinases.
proton pumps.
cyclins.

cyclins

The MPF protein complex turns itself off by

activating a process that destroys cyclin components.
activating an enzyme that stimulates cyclin.
binding to chromatin.
exiting the cell.
activating the anaphase-promoting complex.

activating a process that destroys cyclin components.

A mutation results in a cell that no longer produces a normal protein kinase for the M phase checkpoint. Which of the following would likely be the immediate result of this mutation?

The cell would prematurely enter anaphase.
The cell would never leave metaphase.
The cell would never enter metaphase.
The cell would never enter prophase.
The cell would undergo normal mitosis, but fail to enter the next G1 phase.

The cell would undergo normal mitosis, but fail to enter the next G1 phase.

Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?

As cells become more numerous, they begin to squeeze against each other, restricting their size and ability to produce control factors.
As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing.
As cells become more numerous, the protein kinases they produce begin to compete with each other, such that the proteins produced by one cell essentially cancel those produced by its neighbor.
As cells become more numerous, more and more of them enter the S phase of the cell cycle.
As cells become more numerous, the level of waste products increases, eventually slowing down metabolism.

As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing.

Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

They do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.
When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle.
They are not subject to cell cycle controls.
When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle, and they are not subject to cell cycle controls.
When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.

When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.

Which of the following describe(s) cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)?

Cdk is inactive, or "turned off," in the presence of cyclin.
Cdk is present throughout the cell cycle.
Cdk is an enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteins.
Cdk is inactive, or "turned off," in the presence of cyclin and it is present throughout the cell cycle.
Cdk is present throughout the cell cycle and is an enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteins.

Cdk is present throughout the cell cycle and is an enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteins.

Besides the ability of some cancer cells to overproliferate, what else could logically result in a tumor?

metastasis
changes in the order of cell cycle stages
lack of appropriate cell death
inability to form spindles
inability of chromosomes to meet at the metaphase plate

lack of appropriate cell death

Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?

They no longer have active nuclei.
They no longer carry receptors for signal molecules.
They have been shunted into G0.
They can no longer bind Cdk to cyclin.
They show a drop in MPF concentration.

They have been shunted into G0.

Which of the following most accurately describes a cyclin?

It is present in similar concentrations throughout the cell cycle.
It is activated to phosphorylate by complexing with a Cdk.
It decreases in concentration when MPF activity increases.
It activates a Cdk molecule when it is in sufficient concentration.
It activates a Cdk when its concentration is decreased.

It activates a Cdk molecule when it is in sufficient concentration

All cell cycle checkpoints are similar in which way?

They respond to the same cyclins.
They utilize the same Cdks.
They give the go-ahead signal to progress to the next checkpoint.
They each have only one cyclin/Cdk complex.
They activate or inactivate other proteins.

They activate or inactivate other proteins.

For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells, which of the following is most desirable?

It is safe enough to limit all apoptosis.
It does not alter metabolically active cells.
It only attacks cells that are density dependent.
It interferes with cells entering G0.
It interferes with rapidly dividing cells.

It interferes with rapidly dividing cells.

You have a series of cells, all of which were derived from tumors, and you first need to find out which ones are malignant. What could you do?

See which ones are not overproliferating.
Find out which ones have a higher rate of apoptosis.
Karyotype samples to look for unusual size and number of chromosomes.
Measure metastasis.
Time their cell cycles.

Karyotype samples to look for unusual size and number of chromosomes.

One difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that cancer cells

are unable to synthesize DNA.
are arrested at the S phase of the cell cycle.
continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together.
cannot function properly because they are affected by density-dependent inhibition.
are always in the M phase of the cell cycle

continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together.

Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?

condensation of the chromosomes
replication of the DNA
separation of sister chromatids
spindle formation
separation of the spindle poles

replication of the DNA

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