British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life of Indians.
(1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; it was very bloody conflict in which the Sepoys took over Delhi; British empire ended the rule of the British East India Company and ruled it directly; ended some social regulations
A Hindu word meaning rule
Indian Civil Service
the administration of India; most officers were British; very few Indian officers
Indian National Congress
first Indian nationalist organization, formed in 1885; founded by English-speaking Hindus; made modest requests of the British that weren't granted; became more radical
An organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims; created because of the swadeshi movement
A boycott of british goods to force the English to make concessions for Indians; was successful
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854 treaty between Japan and the US in which Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships
"enlightened rule" Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912; he restored imperial rule to Japan and pushed for many reforms in Japan.
Koreans rebelled. Japan and China sent troops to stop the rebellion. This led to a war between Japan and China, Japan won, and after this Japan was a world power
Treaties that benefitted European powers at the expense of China
Foreigners accused of crimes had the right to be tried in their home country courts rather than in Chinese or Japanese courts
A movement led by Hong Xiuquan who wanted to create a kingdom where no one would be poor; the movement captured large territories in southeast China; controlled Nanjing in 1853; Qing, British, and French soldiers attacked the rebellious army and won; over 20 million Chinese died in the rebellion
In 1899, rebels attacked missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity; in June 1900 rebels laid seige to foreign compounds in Beijing and held the foreigners hostage for 55 days; an army of 20,000 captured Beijing and stopped the uprising; foreign powers imposed a heavy fine on the Chinese government for supporting the rebels
He had three basic principles: nationalism, democracy and equality in landownership; Believed that China should become a democracy, but that the Chinese weren't ready yet; Called for an overthrow of the Qing dynasty and replacing it with a ruling nationalist party; party would act as a guardian until the people were ready for democracy
The belief that certain nations or races are more fit than others, fit nations come to rule over the unfit ones, showed discrimination against citizens of the ruled countries
An englishman and wealthy businessman who was an outspoken advocate of Social Darwinism. He believed a railway linking Britain's Cape Colony to Cairo, Egypt would bring benefits of civilization to all Africa
A canal that was created in 1869. It linked the Mediterranean with the Red Sea and shortened the trip to the Indian Ocean.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which an agreement was formed that a European nation had to notify other European nations and prove that it could control the territory when it claimed a new African territory
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
leader of Ethiopia, undertook a program of modernization that included a modern army in 1889, defeated Italians during the battle of Adowa in 1896,
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
A general who dominated Mexico during the 30 years after independence, was popular b/c of numerous military victories, served as president 5 times between 1833-1855, started off liberal but became more conservative, was exiled several times, but returned once his enemies were defeated
was exiled forever in 1855
Came to power after Juárez died, maintained law and order, imprisoned his opponents, used the army to keep the peace at any cost, encouraged foreign investment
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Led a band of rebels who supported Madero's ideas, captured city of Juarez in 1911
Mexican revolutionary, led a group of indigenous peasants, called for land reforms
Declared himself president after Huerta was defeated, defeated his rivals Zapata and Villa who refused to support him
Cuban poet and journalist who organized a guerilla revolution against Spain in 1895, founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was killed during an uprising
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba becoming a protectorate as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
A nationalist who believed that the Spanish-American War would bring the Philippines independence, felt betrayed when US made the Philippines a colony
An addition to the Monroe Doctrine, US vowed to use its military might to keep Europeans out of the Americas in order to protect US interests and maintain stability in the region
An alliance that united Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
A relatively informal promise to cooperate between Great Britain, France, and Russia
arch-duke of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, a member of the Black Hand
A country that takes no side in a conflict
In WWI, the nations of Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
In WWI, the nations of Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, the United States, and Serbia
Deadlocked region in northern France
Fighting from inside trenches, enemies would use machine guns, tanks, and poison gas
a tactic requiring the use of all of society's resources
information designed to influence people's opinions
Battle of Verdun
Battle fought between French and German armies at the fortress of Verdun from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
An effort by the Allied Powers' troops to take the Dardanelles hoping to set up a supply line to Russia
the deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
A small Marxist group, led by Vladimir Lenin, seeking to change life in Russia by overthrowing the czar, so that the proletariat could gain the power to rule Russia as a socialist country
A self-proclaimed holy man who advised Czarina Alexandra and healer whom many Russians viewed as corrupt and immoral
Bolshevism's new name, named after leader Vladimir Lenin, variation of communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin
a top Bolshevik official, negotiated peace with the Central Powers, had to accept an agreement that made Russia lose land
New Economic Plan
Plan implemented by Lenin that allowed some private ownership of businesses and small plots of land.
US president who did not want to become involved in WWI, believed the US should stay out of the affairs of other nations