Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Microbiology [DNA, genes, ] ^*key concepts,terms,

in a DNA structure certain bases attract and bond, which ones?

a- t, c-g

Is DNA one stranded or two?

two

what are alleles?

they are a variation of a gene

what is a gene?

units responsible for traits [>units of Inheritence]

genotype

the genetic makeup of a person
ex. earlobes - homozygus, heterozygus, codom (recessive =attatched, dom. unattached)

phenotype

expression (+'s - indiv. portrait)
ex. express unattached, express attached

nucleus

contains genetic material [chromozomes, etc]

Chromozomes

come in pairs & carry genetic material [scrunched up DNA+protein]

how many pairs of chromozomes in a somatic cell?

23 pairs: first 22 are homologous[autosomes] the sencond sex chromozomes

meiosis

sex cell formation

sex cell formation

occurs in the testes and ovaries- these cells [haploid] have but one chromozome and don't until the sperm and egg come together

zygote

fetrilized egg

crossover

genetic material is exchanged between homologous cells = resulting in recombination a variation of the alleles on the XX or XY's

karyotype

photograph of a individuals chromozomes under microscope

MtDNA

mitochondrial DNA is seperate from the cell and the cells rnergy source performing 600 function/sec.

base pair rule

certain bases in a nucleotide attract and bond

nucleotide

1 phosphate P,1 sugar D, and 1 of 4 bases [A,T,C,G]

DNA replication step1

special enzymes break the bonds between the 2 strands /:. strands divide

DNA replication step 2

the seperation permits the exposed bases to attract unnattached nucleotides[free floating within the cell nucleus]

DNA replication step 3

the previous [parental] nucleotides serve as a template for the formation of the new strand [so the free floaters gotta match whatever phosphate,sugar,base combo was there first]

another name for DNA replication is?

mitosis!

Protein synthesis 1

DNA unzips, mRNA transcribes the code then peels away and travels to the ribosome

Protein synthesis 2

the ribosome translates the coded mRNA in triplets[ codons-groups of 3 bases that code for specific amino acids

Protein synthesis 3

the TRNA carries the amino acids matching the mRNA codons that are being translated.

Protein synthesis 3

The amino acids are linked together to form a strand. A protein.

RNA

single stranded, different sugar U, can travel outside nucleus1 phosphate, 1 sugar R, ! of 4 bases [U-A,C-G

protein

complex 3-D molecules- that can bond to other molecules- compsed of linear chains of amino acids

and how cool are amino acids?

these 20 the are the universal code for all LIFE on Earth -combined in different amounts a sequences to produes millions of proteins

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set