Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front
powerful novel detailing the horrors of trench warfare in WWI.
Pablo Picasso, Guernica
Guernica considered one of Picasso's (most significant artist of 20th century) greatest work. The mournful white, black and blue colors of the mural were inspired by the Spanish Civil War and the deadly terror bombing of Guernica by fascist planes in a single night. Picasso's cubist techniques heighten the terror of the complex work.
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.
Ruhr Crisis, 1923
When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.
Locarno Pact, "spirit of Locarno"
The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
From 1936-1938, Stalin carries out Great Purges to remove all memory of the Bolshevik revoltion thereby controlling history.
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
March on Rome
Event in 1922 that displaces King Victor Emmaneul and establishes Mussolini as leader of Italy
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
"Night of Long Knives"
June, 30, 1934. On this night, Hitler sent his elite guards (Schutzstaffel/ SS/ black shirts) to kill the Storm Troopers, led by Ernst Röhm, and other non-Nazi political opponents.
the secret state police in Nazi Germany
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
Appeasement: Munich Conference
policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory. Czechoslovakia would give up Sudetenland and Germany would promise to not fight for more territory in Europe. However the appeasement was known for betrayal, weakness, and surrender, because nobody stopped Hitler and he could easily took over Czechoslovakia.
Battle of Britain: RAF vs. Luftwaffe
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Wannsee Conference: "Final Solution"
"A plan was presented for killing all the Jews in Europe. including 330.000 Jews in England and 4.000 in Ireland. although the minutes taken by Eichmann refer to this only through euphemisms. such as "" ? emigration has now been replaced by evacuation to the East. This operation should be regarded only as a provisional option. though in view of the coming final solution of the Jewish question it is already supplying practical experience of vital importance."""
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)