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The _______ was a group of sociologists who studied the relationship between environmental conditions and crime

Chicago School

Murder, forcible rape and aggravated assault are examples of what category of crime classification in the Uniform Crime Report?

Index

The academic discipline of criminology use scientific methods to study the

Nature, extent and causes of criminal behavior.

Which of the following are crimes designed to improve the financial or social position of criminal offenders?

Instrumental crimes

Why must criminologists be ethical in their research?

People might be affected or influenced by the results

Classical theorists argue which of the following punishment standards must be met if we want to deter crime?

Swift, Certain and Severe

Criminologists try to create _____ and ______ measurements of criminal behavior.

VALID and RELIABLE

Which of the following is a violent crime reported by the FBI?

rape

The writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on ___________, which indicts the economic system for producing conditions that lead to high crime rates.

Critical criminology

The Uniform Crime Report is the best known and most cited source of aggregate statistics about crime.

...

Which of the following are a small group of offenders who account for a majority of all criminal offenses?

Career criminals

Which of the following accurately depicts how the FBI calculates crime rates?

(Total Number of Reported Crimes/Total Population)*100,000

Which one of the following is NOT a basic element of classical criminology?

Punishment cannot be controlled the threat of punishment**

A. In every society people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions

...

B. Criminal solutions may be more attractive than lawful ones

...

C. Punishment cannot be controlled the threat of punishment**

...

D. Punishment must be swift, certain and severe

...

Which of the following refers to the correction and control of known criminal offenders?

Penology

Positivist criminology is the application of the Scientific method to the study of human behavior.

...

According to Durkheim, as societies change, the resulting structural changes result in which of the following?

Anomie

A ______ is a variable that is statistically related to crime

Correlate

Which of the following crimes is not included in the National Crime Victimization Survey?

Homicide

___________ is the study of victim's roles in criminal events.

Victimology

_________ occurs when a victim exhibits some personal characteristics that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker.

Passive precipitation

Which of the following is not one of the three elements described by Cohen and Felson in routine activities theory?

Deviant associations

The _________ are mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers designed to produce restitution agreements and reconciliation.

Victim-Offender Reconciliation Program (VORPS)

Rational choice theory has roots in which of the following schools of criminology?

Classical

Which of the following refers to the repetition of criminal behavior?

Recidivism

Which of the following relies on scaring specific offenders from committing future crimes by ensuring the certainty of punishment?

Specific deterrence

________ is a method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings.

Situational crime prevention

_________ programs assist victims who feel isolated and vulnerable and who are in need of immediate or emergency services.

Crisis intervention

According to Nobel Prize-winning economist Gary Becker, criminals engage in a(n) cost-benefit analysis of crime.

...

Victimization risk diminish rapidly after age:

25

Victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves. This abuse-crime phenomenon is termed the cycle of violence

...

At the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the classical approach began to decline as Positivist criminologists focused their attentions on internal and external factors - such as poverty, IQ, and education - rather than personal choice and decision making

...

The elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that include:

Fraud

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presences of motivated offenders is called:

routine activities theory

Crime is ________ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act.

offense-specific

The stronger a person's commitment to conventional institutions, individuals, and processes, the less likely they are to commit crime.

...

______ participation seems to be a more significant inhibitor of crime than merely having religious beliefs and values.

Religious

According to Classical Criminology, the deterrent effect of law may be neutralized if there is a significant lag between apprehension and punishment.

...

According to lifestyle theorists, people with high-risk lifestyles have a lower risk of victimization due to the extra precautions they take.

FALSE

Primary deviance involves resocialization into a deviant role and produces a deviance amplification effect.

FALSE

Social control theory suggests that people learn techniques and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers.

FALSE

The UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. How are crime rates expressed in the UCR?

rates per 100,000 total U.S. population

The father of criminology and the man who referred to offenders as born criminals was:

Lombroso

____________ theory combines elements of strain and social disorganization theories.

Cultural deviance

Caesar Beccaria, in the 1700s, was one of the first scholars to develop a systematic understanding of why people commit crime. Beccaria believed in the concept of utilitarianism the idea that people want to achieve pleasure and avoid

...

During the Middle Ages, people who violated social norms or religious practices were thought to be witches or possessed by demons

...

What shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?

the non-reporting issue

The scientific study of those harmed by crimes is called __________

victimology

__________, the most abundant androgen, has been linked to criminality.

Testosterone

As working and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos. This phenomenon results in a poverty: _________

concentration effect

___________ are created by the unequal distribution of wealth and power

Social strata

_________ theory holds that crime is a function of: Conflict between people's goals and means

.Merton s strain

_________ reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.

Trait theory

Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior

...

According to the structural perspective, crime rates are a function of ecological forces such as neighborhood conditions, cultural factors, and norm conflict.

...

What category of victim precipitation occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker?

passive precipitation

___________ is the view that repeat offenders begin their careers at a young age.

Early onset

Counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the criminal justice system, who guide victims through the justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court are called:

victim advocates

Robert Agnew suggests that criminality is the direct result of negative affective states - the anger, frustration and adverse emotions associated with destructive social relationships.

...

A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings is referred to as:

situational crime prevention

People living in poverty are believed to engage in disproportionate amounts of expressive crimes, such as rape and assault, as a result of their rage, anger, and frustration against society.

...

When video cameras set up in a mall to reduce shoplifting also reduce property damage due to vandalism, this situational crime prevention benefit is termed:

displacement

Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces a culture of poverty that is passed on from one generation to the next.

...

_____________ theory reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual s emotional traits and responses to criminality.

General strain

Gathering valid crime data, devising new research methods, and measuring crime patterns and trends fall under the criminal statistics subarea of the criminological enterprise.

...

General strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how life events & social buffers influence behavior.

...

The NCVS annually samples more than 42,000 households and 78,000 individuals age 12 or older in order to estimate crime victimization

...

___________ refers to a victim's physical weakness or psychological stress that renders them incapable of resisting or deterring crime.

Target vulnerability

According to institutional anomie theorists, the American Dream is both a goal and process to accumulate goods and wealth

...

________ refers to people committing less crime as they grow older.

Aging out

Survey research involves sampling - the process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics, called the:

population

_________ theory was popularized by the work of two Chicago sociologists: Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay

Social disorganization

The writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on critical criminology, which faults the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates.

...

According to Lemert, primary deviance involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten.

...

Social classes are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.

...

__________ occurs when people become deviant because they are influenced by others with whom they are in close contact.

Contagion effect

Cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where people develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop:

collective efficacy

Alberta Bandura collective efficacy

...

Criminologists interested in computing criminal statistics focus on creating valid and reliable measurements of criminal behavior.

...

Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called :

cultural transmission

When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as:

strain

According to Durkheim, as societies change the structural arrangements result in :

anomie

"Let the punishment fit the crime" reflects which of the following criminological schools of thought?

classical criminology

Brain structure, brain damage, and brain chemicals are the causes of behavior in the _________

neurophysiological perspective.

Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by appealing to higher loyalties. Which of the following would be an example of that technique?

Attacking someone who is arguing with a friend

What is the key difference between instrumental theorists and structural theorists?

Structural theorists focus on anyone who threatens the capitalist system

Which of the following statements does NOT reflect labeling theory?

Labeling theory recognizes that criminality is a disease or a pathological behavior

Which of the following has been recognized in your text as a challenge to restorative justice?

Restorative justice may work in the short term while ignoring long-term treatment needs

According to Messerschmidt's views in Capitalism, Patriarchy,

...

and Crime what factor explains why females in society commit fewer crimes than males?

double marginality

John Hagan s critical feminist model uses gender differences to explain the onset of criminality. According to Hagan's power-control theory, what two factors account for female crime and delinquency?

class position and family functions

Social control theory suggests that:

crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken

According to Lemert, primary deviance involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten.

...

Critical feminism reflects a critical perspective that explains both the exploitation of women and women's criminality in terms of gender inequality and patriarchy.

...

Profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves. This key crime-producing effort of modern corporate capitalism is termed:

surplus value

_________ refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a non-coercive way.

Parental efficacy

In its purest form, social reaction theory argues that even crimes such as murder, rape, and assault are only bad or evil because people label them as such.

...

The process of becoming stigmatized by crime labels is interactive. Labeling theorists blame the establishment of criminal careers on:

crime control agencies

According to power-control theory, which type of family produces daughters whose law-violating behavior mirrors that of their brothers?

egalitarian families

Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior

...

Lea and Young's left realism view of crime causation borrows from mainstream sociological theory and closely resembles the relative deprivation approach.

...

Critical theorists question the altruism of multi-national corporations and, therefore, take a very skeptical view of:

globalization

State (organized) crime describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government.

...

Travis Hirschi states that the social bonds a person maintains with society are divided into four main elements. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?

affection

Pioneering social control theorist, Walter Reckless argued that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures of crimogenic influences in the environment.

...

Social process theories share one basic concept. Which is it?

All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals

Instrumental theorists consider it essential to demystify law and justice - that is, to unmask its true purpose.

...

The process of drift refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values.

...

Why is early onset an important factor in crime?

Because early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality

Which of the following is NOT one of the significant life-changing events that reduce criminality, according to Sampson and Laub?

Buying a car

A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbers. What do these studies indicate?

Robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey

According to Wilson and Herrnstein's crime and human nature view, a criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior. What factor influences that choice?

a latent trait

Frederick Lawrence argues that criminals motivated by bias deserve to be punished more severely than those who commit identical crimes for other motives. Why is this so?

Bias crimes should be punished more severely for all these reasons

Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior? children exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates

children exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates

In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi consider the criminal offender and the criminal act as separate concepts.

...

Gottfredson and Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to:

inadequate child-rearing practices

In the 1991 case of Michigan v. Lucas, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the validity of shield laws that protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case.

...

According to the general theory of crime, being adventuresome, physical, and self-centered are all signs that a person possess:

low self-control

Latent trait theorists believe the human development is controlled by a master trait that is present at birth or soon after

...

According to life course theories, criminal opportunity, effective guardianship, and apprehension risk are situational factors that can explain the onset, continuance, and desistance from crime.

...

How do life course theorists view criminality?

as a dynamic process

Because they combine personal, social, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors, life course theories are described as:

...

Using data from a longitudinal study of Pittsburgh youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?

the authority conflict pathway

Sampson and Laub's research indicates that building social capital and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long-term deviance.

...

Critics of General theory of Crime (Hirschi & Goffredson) have argued that it is tautological.

...

One of the key principles of life course theory is that: the seeds of a criminal career are planted early in life

...

Developmental theories attempt to provide a natural history of criminal careers by encompassing:

its onset, continuation, and termination

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