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Myers 2011 Ch 14

social psychology

scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

attribution theory

theory that we credit either the situation or the person's disposition for his/her behavior

fundamental attribution error

tendency to assume disposition has a greater impact on behavior than the situation (underestimating the situation and overestimating disposition)

attitude

feelings that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events

central route persuasion

attitude change path based on logic, such as arguments

peripheral route persuasion

attitude change path based on incidental cues, such as attractiveness

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

tendency for people to comply with successively larger requests after a small initial request

role

set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how one should behave

cognitive dissonance theory

theory that we act to reduce discrepancy between actions and thoughts/beliefs

conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

normative social influence

influence resulting from a desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

informational social influence

influence resulting from willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

Stanley Milgram

obedience experimenter

social facilitation

tendency to perform well-learned tasks better in presence of others

social loafing

tendency to exert less effort when pooling efforts of multiple people than when individually accountable ex. LeBron

deindividuation

loss of self-awareness and -restraint

group polarization

augmentation of group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within group ex. Jonestown final day

groupthink

thinking that overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives due to desire for harmony

culture

enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions of a group

norm

understood rule for accepted behavior

prejudice

unjustifiable attitude toward a group; pre-judging

stereotype

generalized belief about a group of people

discrimination

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group of people

ingroup

"us"

outgroup

"them"

ingroup bias

tendency to favor one's own group

scapegoat theory

theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

other-race effect

tendency to recall faces within own race better; cross-race effect/own-race bias

just-world phenomenon

tendency to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve

aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

frustration-aggression principle

principle that frustration generates anger and aggression

mere exposure effect

phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

passionate love

aroused state of intense positive absorption in another

companionate love

deep affectionate attachment felt for people in our lives

equity

condition in which people receive from a relationship what they put in to to

self-disclosure

revealing of intimate aspects of oneself to others

altruism

unselfish regard for welfare of others

bystander effect

tendency less aid to be offered in presence of multiple bystanders

social exchange theory

theory that social behavior is exchange process, aiming to maximize benefits and minimize costs

reciprocity norm

expectation that people help those who have helped them

social-responsibility norm

expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

conflict

perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas

social trap

situation in which conflicting parties become mutually destructive (due to pursuit of self-interest)

mirror-image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, like when both sides see their own side as ethical and peaceful

self-fulfilling prophecy

belief that leads to its own fulfillment

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

GRIT

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction; strategy to decrease international tensions

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