Anatomy Urinary System

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What is regulated by the kidneys

water content of the blood
blood pH level
Blood ion concentration

The medial surface of each kidney has a notch called the

hilum

At the beginning of the "plumbing system" of the urinary system, urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in the cup like structures called

Calyces

The functional unit of the kidney is

nephron

what is a component of the renal corpuscle

glomerlus
bowman's capsule

which of the following structures secretes renin when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops

juxtaglomelular apparatus

substances pass from the glomeruls and into the bowman's capsule by

filtration

the juxtaglomelular cells reside in the

afferent arteriole

What are the processes of urine formation

filtration
reabsorption
secretion

The movement of water and solute from the plasma in the glomerlus across the glomerular capsular membrane and into the capsular space of the Bowman's capsule is termed

filtration

the movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion is

secretion

under normal conditions most water, electrolytes and nutrients are reabsorbed in the

proximal convoluted tubule

What is considered a countercurrent structure

Loop of Henle

Water loss from the blood is reduced by

ADH, aldosterone

Dysuria is a term describing

painful urination

Fluid exiting the loop of Henle becomes less concentrated with

NA and CI ions

In the renal tubule, NA is reabsorbed via

active transport

____ is a condition characterized by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood

Gout

Urine backs up into the kidneys causing swelling of the renal pelvis and calyces

Hydronephrosis

Kidney stones

Renal calculi

Final stage of chronic renal failure

uremia

involuntary retention of urine with subsequent distention of the bladder

neurogenic bladder

inflammation of the bladder

crystitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and connective tissues of the kidney

pyelonephritis

An abrupt reduction in kidney function characterized by oliguria and a sharp rise in nitrogenous compounds in the blood

acute renal failure

progressive condition resulting from gradual loss of nephrons

chronic renal failure

Intense kidney pain caused by destruction of the ureters by large kidney stones

renal colic

most common form of kidney disease cased by a delayed immune response to streptococcal infection

acute glomerulonephritis

albumin in the urine

proteinuria

inflammation of the urethra that commonly results from bacterial infection

urethrits

Capillary network in renal corpuscles

glomerules

movement of molecule back into the blood

reabsorption

tube from kidney to bladder

ureter

mouth of nephron

bowman's capsule

outer region of kidney

renal cortex

inner region of kidney

renal medulla

opening from bladder to exterior

urethra

osmotic concentration of a solution

osmuality

functional unit of kidney

nephron

amount of substance removed from blood by kidneys per minute

cieracne

Which process is used by the artificial kidney to remove waster materials from the blood

dialysis

Failure of the kidneys to remove wastes from the blood will result in what

uremia

Hydrogen ions are transferred from blood into the urine during which process

secretion

what condition would be considered normal in an infant under 2 years of age

incontinence

What steps involved in urine formation allow the body to retain most body nutrients

reabsorption

Voluntary control of micturition is achieved by the action of which of the following

external urethral sphincter

what is the structure that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder called

ureter

What are the capillary loops contained within Bowman's capsule called

glomeruli

The triangular division of the medulla of the kidney are known as

pyramids

The trigone is located in the

bladder

Involuntary voiding

incontinence

passes through prostate gland

urethra

absence of urine

anuria

urination

micturition

blood in urine

hematuria

inflammation of the kidney

nephritis

large amount of protein in urine

proteinuria

large amount of urine

polyuria

folds that line the bladder

rugae

scanty amount of urine

oliguria

Test for renal dysfunction

BUN

The majority of total body water is found in

intracellular fluid

The most abundant intracellular cation is

K

The most abundant extracellular cation is

Na

The most abundant anion in extracellular fluids is

Cl

Fluid intake usually equals

fluid output

The two factors that determine urine volume are

the glomerules filtration rate and the rate of water reabsorption by the renal tubules

What is an example of obligatory fluid output

water vapor in expired air
water diffusion through the skin

Blood hydrostatic pressure

Tends to force fluid out of the capillaries and into interstitial fluid

What are the symptoms of dehydration

dim vision
cessation in urine formation
crackled skin

What large molecules are retained by the selectively permeable cell membrane

proteins

detect decreased pressure of blood when dehydration occurs

osmoreceptors

fluid volume excess

hypervolemia

fluid located within cells

intracellular

excessive loss of fluid from the body

dehydration

low serum potassium

hyopkalemia

water found outside of cells

extracellular

swelling

edema

MEq

Millequoteint

fluid that surrounds the cells

interstitial

chloride deficiency

hypochloremia

administration of fluids by injection

parenteral

What is NOT a positively charged ion

chloride

what is NOT a negatively charged ion

sodium

the smallest amount of water comes from

water from catabolism

the greatest amount of water lost from the body is from the

kidneys

Excessive water loss and fluid imbalance can result from what

diarrhea
vomiting
sever burns

What factor is primarily responsible for moving water from interstitial fluid into blood

protein concentration of blood plasma

If blood sodium concentration decreases, what does blood volume do

decrease

what is true of body water

it is obtained from the liquids we drink
it is obtained from the foods we eat
it is formed by the catabolism of food

Edema may result from

retention of electrolytes

The most abundant and important positive plasma ion is

sodium

what is true when extracellular volume decreases

aldosterone secretion increases
Kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium increases
urine volume decreases

As pH goes down

a solution becomes more acidic

The most acidic body substance is

gastric juice

What is an acid forming food

meat

what are base forming foods

fruits and vegetables

an acid forming element is

sulfur

acidic ketone bodies are associated with cellular metabolism of

fats

potassium salts of hemoglobin inside the red blood cell primarily buffer

carbonic acid

a serious complication of vomiting is

metabolic alkalosis

With each expiration which substance leaves the body

Co2 and H20

The kidney tubules secrete hydrogen ions in exchange of

Na

Acidosis causes

hyperventilation

A decrease in blood pH accelerates tubules excretion of

hydrogen and ammonia

result of untreated diabetes

uncompensated metabolic acidosis

sodium lactate

treatment for metabolic respiratory acidosis

bicarbonate deficit

metabolic acidosis

bicarbonate excess

metabolic alkalosis

rapid breathing

hyperventilation

carbonic acid excess

respiratory acidosis

carbonic acid deficit

respiratory alkalosis

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