A measure of the speed of any change that occurs within an interval of time.
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide with one another.
The minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react.
An unstable arrangement of atoms that forms momentarily at the peak of the activation-energy barrier.
Synonym for Activated Complex
A substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst.
One in whih the conversion of reactants to products and the conversion of products to reactants occur simultaneously.
When the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, the reaction has reached a state of balance.
Indicates whether the reactants or products are favored in a reversible reaction.
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the sytem changes in a way that relieves the stress.
The ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium.
Solubility Product Constant
Equals the product of the concentrations of the ions each raised to a power equalo to the coefficient of the ion in the dissociation equation.
An ion that is found in both salts in a solution.
Common Ion Effect
The lowering of the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of a common ion.
Energy that is available to do work.
Occurs naturally and favors the formation of proudcts at the specified conditions.
A reaction that does not favor the formation of products at the specified conditions.
A measure of the disorder of a system.
Law of Disorder
States that the natural tendency is for systems to move in the direction of maximum disorer or randomness.
Gibbs Free-Energy Change
The maximum amount of energy that can be coupled to another process to do useful work.