Give Me Liberty: Chapter 5: APUS

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august 26 1765 riot on hutchinson house

a violent crowd of bostonians assaulted thomas hutchinsons home. When hutchinson and his family were eating dinner rioters arrived. The rioters broke down the front door and destroed or carryed off most of their possesions.

cause: stamp act which the rioters opposed. Critics of the stamp act spread a rumor that hutchinson had written to london encouraging the passage( he opposed it)

leader: ebenezer mackintosh

thomas hutchinson

he was the chief of justice and lieutenant governor of massachusetts.

stamp act

the british tax which many colonists felt violated their liberty

ebenezer mackintosh

a shoemaker who had fought against the french during the seven years war and enjoyed a wide following namong bostons working people. He led the attacks on thomas hutchinson and andrew oliver in opposition of the stamp act

andrew oliver

he was a merahcnt who had been appointed to help administer the stamp act. He was thomas hutchinsons cousin

what happened to ebenezer mackintosh after he led the attack on thomas hutchinsons home

he was arrested but then released after the invention of the loyal nine

loyal nine

a group of merchants and craftsmen who had taken the lead in opposing the stamp act. When the violence people such as ebenezer mackintosh started went far beyond what they intended they promised tauthorities that resistance to the stamp act would be more peaceful

george 3rd

assumed the throne of great britain in 1760

affect seven years war had on britain

left thim in enormous debt and vastly enlarged overseas posessions to defend

Paper money: british policy before 1763

parliament had occasionally acted to frobid the issuance of paper money in america and to restrict colonial economic activities that competed with buisnesses at home

Wool act of 1699

forbade colonial manufacturing of paper money

hat act of 1732

forbade colonial manufacturing of paper money

Iron act of 1750

forbade colonial manufacturing of paper money

molasses act of 1733

purpose was to curtail trade between new england and the french caribbean by imposing a prohibitive tax on french produced molasses used to make rum in american distilleries: frequently ignored by colonists

navigation acts

purpose was to channel key american exports like tobacco through british ports

Acts which forbade colonial manufacturing of paper money

Iron act of 1750 hat act of 1732 Wool act of 1699

board of trade

was responsible for overseeing colonial affairs.

Beginning in the late 1740s they attempoted to strengthen imperial authority by demanding that colionial laws conform to royal instructions and encourage colonial assemblies to grant permanent salaries to royal governors (so they could not be bribed). The outbreak of the seven years war suspended this initiative

Britains view of american

During the seven years war: allies
During mid 1760s: back to previous veiw of them as subordinates whose main role was to enrich the mother country

Seven years war: expenses

britain had borrowed from banks and indivual investors an equivalent of over tens of trillions of dollars.

Britains view towards americans role of paying of seven years war debt.

colinies should help pay national debt, foot part of the bill for continued british protection, and stop cheating the treasury by violating the navigation acts

virtual representation

each member of parliament represented the entire empire, not just his own district...the interests of all who lived under the british crown were supposedly taken into account

British views on how to combat smuggling

they issued writs or general search warrants that allowed customs officials to search anywhere they chose for smuggled goods.

james otis

a lawyer who in the celebrated court case in boston in 1761 said that the writs or general search warrants that allowed customs officials to search anywhere they chose for smuggled goods were " an instrument of arbitrary power, destructive to English liberty, and the fundamental principles of the constitution and that parliament therefore had no right to authorize them, A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.

Writs

a general search warrant issued by the british to comabt smuggles which allowed customs officials to search anywhere they chose for smuggled goods

proclamation of 1763

barred further settlement on lands west of the appalachian mountains

sugar act

created in 1764 by prime minister george grenville . It REDUCED the existing tax on molasses imported into north america from the french west indies from six pence to three pence per gallon.

Established a new way to attack and end widespread smuggling by colonial merchants: to counteract the tendency of colonial juries to acquit merchants charged with violating trade regulations, it strengthened the admiralty courts, where accused smugglers could be judged without beenefit of a jury trial
meant so strenghtne the navigation acts

Colonists response: sugar act: reduction of sugar act

the colonists viewed this no as a welcome reduction of taxation but as an attempt to get them to pay a levy they would otherwise have evaded

revenue act

made in 1764. It placed goods such as wool and hides, which had previously been traded freely with holland, france, and southern europe on the enumerated listed( had to be shipped through england),

enumerated list

this meant that the product had to be shipped through england

Currency Act

made in 1764 ( accompanied the revenue and sugar act) reaffirmed the earlier ban on colonial assemblies issuing paper as money that individuals are required to accept in payment of debts (legal tender), restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)

legal tender

money that individuals are required to accept in payments of debts

stamp act

created in 1765. Represented a new deparure in imperial parliament. For the first time, Parliament attempted tgo raise money from direct taxes in the colonies rather than through the regulation of trade.

Required that newspapers, books, ciurt documents, commercial papers, land deeds, almancs etc in the colonies carry a stamp purchased from authorities.

Purpose: help finance the operations of the empire ( cost of stationing british troops in North America, without seeking revenue from colonial assemblies)

The strong negative reaction from the colonists united them


the stamp act was repealed in 1766

Colonists response: Stamp act

Those part of the public sphere resented it. The prospect of a british army permanently stationed on american soil alarmed many colonists. SInce parliament imposed the stamp atax without colonial consent they challenged the authority of local elites whom through assemblies they controlled, had established their power over the raising and spending of money.

Opposition to the stamp act was the first great drama of the revolution era and the first major split between colonists and great britain over the meaning of freedom.

They staged mock funerals in which libertys coffin was carried to a burial ground only to have the occupant miraculously revived at the last moment. In protest to the stamp act

Colonists response: Stamp Act: Quebec: British Merchants

British merchants in quebec said that to follow french laws to remain in force would reduce them to slavery

Stamp Act Congress

In october 1765 the stamp act congress with twenty seven delagates from nine conlonies met in new yuork and endorsed viriginias position of against the stamp act.

Its resolution began by forming allegance to the crown of great britain and their subordination to parliament. However, they insisted that the right to conest to tactation was essential to the freedom of people.

Merchants throughout colonies agreed to boycott british goods until parliament repeopled the stamp act, A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

liberty tree

the large elm tree in boston on which protesters had hanged an effigy of the stamp distributor andrew oliver to persuade him to resign his posts

Liberty hall

the space beneath the liberty tree

liberty pole

a pine mast erected in new york city served in 1766 as a meeting place for oponents of the stamp act

committe of correspondence

in boston this group communicated with other colionies to encourage opposition to the sugar and currency act. ( was made up of colonial leaders), Committees of Correspondance were created by the American colonies in order to maintain communication with one another. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution when communication between the colonies became essential.

Colonists response: Stamp act: John Adams

he said that the act inspired the people to become more attentive to their liberties

sons of liberty

a body led by talented and ambitious lesser merchants like alexander mcdougall, isaac sears, and john lamb. was made up of many ethnic group., A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

declaratory act

after the repealment of the stamp act they passed this which rejected Americans claims that only their elected representatives could levy taxes. , Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.

regulators

abeginning in the mid 1760s a group of wealthy residents of the south carolina backcountry calling themselves regulators protested the underrepresentatuion of western settlements in the colonys assembly and the legislators failure to establish local governments that could regularize land titles and suppress bands of outlaws. the lack of courts in the are they claimed had let to a breakdown of law and order allowing for crims to rampage..

they said we are free men british subjects not born slaves

regulators in north carolina

similar to the regulators in south carollina people protested against lack of representation. however it was small farmers who rebelled. they refused to pay taxes, kidnapped local officials, assaulted the homes of land speculators, merchants, and lawyers, and disrupted court proceedings. They complained not a lack of government but corrupt county authorities.

the local officials threatened inexpensive laccess to land and the prosperity of ordinary settlers through high taxes and court fees.

Atr peak regulators numbered around 8000 armed farmers

in 1771 in the battle of alamance the farmers were suppressed by the colonys militia

Battle of alamance

regulators were suppressed in 1771 by the colonys militia, The North Carolina Regulators found their movement peak in this battle on May 16, 1771. With an army of 2500, these Regulators fought a band of eastern militia started up by the governor of North Carolina, and 300 casualties were inflicted. The Regulator uprising fell apart and colonies found it harder to resist British.

Tenant uprising

In mid 1760s tenants on the hudson river manors stopped paying rent and began seizing lands. they called themselves the songs of liberty. However, the original sons opposed their uprising.
Rebellion was suppressed by british colonial troops
Up in the green mountains small famers to up arms to protect their holdings from new york land lords.

ethan allen

the tenants uprising area ( green mountains) was is in a complicated legal situation. the legal situation in that area was complec because the area was part of new york but the new hampshire governor issued land grants to new england families in that area in the 1750s. Ethan allen believed that land shouild belong to the person who worked it. Outsiders he believed were trying to enslave a free people. In the mid 1770s allen and his green mountain boys would carve out the new state of vermont

townshend acts

created in 1767. Government in london imposed new set of taxes devise by chancellor of the exchequer (cabinets chief financial minister) charles townshend. When the colonists opposed the stamp act some colonists suggested they would not object if britain raised revenue by regulating trade. The taxes were on goods imported into the colonies and to create a new board of customs commissioners to collect them and suppress smuggling. He intended to use the new revenues to pay the salaries of american governors and judges thus freeing them from dependence on colonial assemblies;.

homespun virtue

people boycotted the imported finery and began to rely on american homespun clothing. It became a symbol of american resistance. It refleccted a virtuous spirit of self sacrifice as compared to the self uindulgence and luxury many americans were coming to associate with britain.

Those who were in financial trouble or in debt to british merchants were given the chance to reduce their debts and save money and maintain their liberty because since creating your own things was a symbol of resistance they could hide behind this cover.

daughters of liuberty

women who psun and wove at home so as not to purchase british goods were hailed as daughters of liberty, This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.

Virginia ban on slaves

in the nature of boycotting british goods viriginas leaders temporaryily banned the importation of slaves ( smaller planters in the piedmnot region away from the coast where the instiution was expanding ignored this restrictions

boston massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution., The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, , March 5, 1770

Crispus Attucks

The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War

Paul revere

silversmith whose sketch of the Boston Massacre was propaganda for the patriots; "The British are coming", American silversmith who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the British advance on Lexington and Concord.

John Wilkes

Was a radical journalist known forscandalous writings about the king and ministry. HE had been elected to parliament from lond but was expelled from his seat.

Wilkes and Liberty

the battlecry reffering to john wilkes expellment from parliament. ( was popular on both sides of the atlantic)

East India Company

a gianty trading monoplyu effectively governed recently acquired british possesion in india.

Many british merchants bankers and other individuals had invested heaavily in its stock

Tea acts

created to rescue the east india company ( most investors were british merchants and bankers). They were trying to help market its enormous holdings of chinese tea in north america. THe now prime minister frederick lord north offered the east india company rebates and tax exemptions which enabled it to dump low priced tea on the american market, undercutting both established merchants and smugglers. Money raised through taxing imported trea would be used to help defray the costs of colonial government which threatened the assemblies control over finance

Boston tea party

on december 16, 1773 a group of colonists disguised as indians boared three ships at anchor in boston harbor and threw more then 300 chests of tea into the ater.. The loss to the east indian company was over 4 million (of todays dollars), demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

British response: Boston tea party:

they clossed the port of bostson to all trade until the tea was paid for. It altered the massachusetts charter of 1691 by curtailing town meetings and authorizing the governor to appoint previously elected members of the council. Parliament empowered military commanders to lodge soliders in private homes.

Coercive Acts

they clossed the port of bostson to all trade until the tea was paid for. It altered the massachusetts charter of 1691 by curtailing town meetings and authorizing the governor to appoint previously elected members of the council. Parliament empowered military commanders to lodge soliders in private homes.

Intolerable Acts

they clossed the port of bostson to all trade until the tea was paid for. It altered the massachusetts charter of 1691 by curtailing town meetings and authorizing the governor to appoint previously elected members of the council. Parliament empowered military commanders to lodge soliders in private homes.

Quebec Act

Extended the southern boundary of that conadian province to the ohio river and granted legal toleration to the roman catholic church in canada, Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

Continental Congress

IN September 1774a convention of delagates from massachusettts towns approved a series of resolutions called the suffolk resolves that urged americans to refuse obedience to the new laws, withhold taxes, and prepare for war.

Patrick Henry

a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799), Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech`

Suffolk Resolves

declared colonial resistance to Coercive acts and announced preparations for a military defense against British tyranny. Most famous of many meetings vigorously protesting the Intolerable Acts enacted by the British Parliament the same year. Decided they would boycott British goods, ignore punitive measures, support colonial government, and urge colonies to raise militias.

Committees of Safety

Any of the extralegal committees that directed the revolutionary movement and carried on the functions of government at the local level in the period between the breakdown of royal authority and the establishment of regular governments.

Continental Association

Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts., adopted by Continental Congress, recommended every town/city/county form committees to enforce boycott on British goods, also included provisions for nonimportation of British goods and non-exportation of American goods to Britain; would become organizational/communications network for Revolutionary movement

Second Continental Congress

, They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence, Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.

Benedict Arnold

United States general and traitor in the American Revolution, He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies., Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George III didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion, Letter sent by he 2nd Continental Congress to King George the 3rd in 1775 in an attempt to avoid war

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain., wrote "Common Sense," a pamphlet advocating the American Revolution; also traveled to France during French Revolution, attached to the Girondist party, almost guillotined; wrote the American Crisis during the American Revolution

Declaration Of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain, This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document., Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. This "shout heard round the world" has been a source of inspiration to countless revolutionary movements against arbitrary authority. The document sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.

referenced natirual rights several times (reffering to john locke)

Continental Army

The regular or professional army authorized by the Second Continental Congress and commanded by General George Washington during the Revolutionary War., Shortages of food, clothing, ammunition, blankets; lack of pay, training, victories (low morale); Significantly outnumbered in battle, desertions, one year enlistments, Composed of colonial men, the Continental Army consisted of less than 10,000 men prepared for duty at one time. Out of the potential 250,000 men living in the colonies, the Continental Army was quite diminutive at the dawn of the war. Led by George Washington, this army fought in various battles such as Valley Forge.

Lord Dunmore

Royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army, royal (British) governor of Virginia. In 1775, he issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army. "Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment"

Sir William Howe

British commander, mistakes cost Britain War, he abandoned his battle plan, allowed Washington to regroup, didn't attack at Valley Forge, some believed that he sympathized with colonists and didn't want to win the war, British Army Commander who took his army to New York City, and led them to arrive North Along the Hudson. led th british troops in the battle of harlem heights 1776, the battle of germantown 1777 and the battle of brandywine creek 1777

General John Burgoyne

British general appointed by King George III to crush the rebel forces; 1777, subordinate of Howe, lead invading force down Hudson from Canada to Alabany; was present at the Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Yorktown

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain., a turning point of the Revolution in October 1777, when an army of 6,000 British soldiers surrendered in new York; the battle resulted from a British attempt to divide the colonies through the Hudson River Valley. The American victory convinced the French to ally with the colonies and assured the ultimate success of independence.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781., final battle of the war, in which French and American forces led by George Washington defeated British General Cornwallis

General Cornwallis

British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington, 1783 - 1805, British military and political leader. Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution. The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown. in 1781.

Treaty of Amity and Commerce

Feb 6. 1778 with France; France recognized the US and offered trade concession, including important privileges to American shipping

Sir Henry Clinton

He replaced Howe in 1778, and then decided to move his army back to NY, and order Cornwallis to return to Yorktown after a bad defeat. Washington trapped him and he surrendered

Daniel Morgan

soldier in the American Revolution who defeated the British in the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina (1736-1802)

General Nathan Greene

major general who fought in the south

Treaty of Paris

The american delegation jogn admas, benjamin franklin, and john jay achieved on of the greatest dimplomatic triumphs in the countrys hidstory. Won recognition of american independence ban gained control of the entire region between canada and florida east of the mississippi river and the right of americans to fish in atlantic waters off of canada. Colonists who remained loyal to mother country would not suffer persecution and loyalists propery tthat had been seized by local and state government would be restored

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