an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening withing a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves tat connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
the underlying but censored meaning of dreams.
therapists that try to understand a patient's current symptoms by focusing on themes across important relationships.
a variation of psychodynamic therapy which has shown to be effective in treating depression. It aims to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties, but is goal is symptom relief in the here and now, not overall personality change.
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
the three traits Rogers believed were important for therapists to have.
the term referring to a therapist training the client to relax one muscle group after another until the client achieves a drowsy state of complete relaxation and comfort. It is often used in systematic desensitization.
reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors or punishing them.
stress inoculation training
this teaches people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations. (offered by Donald Meichenbaum)
EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing)
a type of alternative therapy which involves triggering eye movements by waving a finger in front of the eyes, supposedly enabling the client to unlock and reprocess previously frozen trauma memories.
SAD (seasonal affective disorder)
A form of depression consisting of oversleeping, gaining weight, and feeling lethargic during winter.
the emotional bond between therapist and client.
drugs which dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli.
an antipsychotic drug used to decrease positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
an antipsychotic drug used to decrease negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
an antipsychotic drug which blocks serotonin activity as well as dopamine activity. It may raise the risk of blood disease.
the type of dopamine receptors targeted by first-generation dopamine blocking drugs.
the type of dopamine receptors targeted by new-generation dopamine blocking drugs.
drugs that lift people from a state of depression. They are increasingly being used to treat anxiety disorders.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
An antidepressant that limits the action of monoamine oxidase which breaks down Norepinephrine.
An antidepressant that reduces the reuptake of neurotransmitters and may cause sleepiness.
antidepressants which block the reuptake of serotonin.
are often used as mood stabilizers for people with bipolar disorder.
minor tranquilizers which increase GABA activity, which decreases brain activity in areas relevant to generalized anxiety responses.
a strategy of therapy in which the therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and refrains from directing the client toward certain insights. (part of client-centered therapy)
the power of belief in a treatment. (often used as a control treatment)
what researchers use to evaluate the effectiveness of any new drug, in which half the patients receive the drug and the other half a similar-appearing placebo.
the birth of new brain cells, perhaps reversing stress-induced loss of neurons.