The study of linguistic speech sounds, how they are produced, perceived and their physical aspects.
An individual sound that occurs in a language, the act of dividing utterances into sounds, morphemes, words and phrases.
The fundamental frequency of sound perceived by the listener.
A speech sound with an ingressive airstream mechanism that produces sounds by sucking air into the mouth and forcing it between articulators to produce a sharp sound. E.g. tsk.
A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realisations are predictable by rule.
A predictable phonetic realisation of a phoneme.
The study of the physical characterisations of speech sounds.
The study of the perception of speech sounds.
The study of how the vocal tract produces speech sounds, the physiological characteristics of speech sounds.
Alphabetic symbols used to represent the phonetic segments of speech in which there is a one-to-one relationship between each symbol and each speech sound.
International Phonetic Alphabet
The phonetic alphabet designed by the international phonetic association to be used to represent sounds found in all human languages.
The representation of speech sounds using phonetic symbols between square brackets. they may reflect non-distincitve predictable features such as aspiration and nasality
A sound produced without significant constriction of the air flowing through the oral cavity.
A phonological unit composed of an onset, nucleus and coda. E.g. elevator has 4 syllables.
The structure of muscles and cartlidge in the throat that contains the vocal folds and glottis, often called voice box.
The opening between the vocal folds.
The tube or cavity in the vocal tract above the glottis through which the air passes during speech production.
The mouth area through which air passes during the production of speech.
The passageway between the throat and the nose through which the air passes during speech if the velum is lowered.
The oral and nasal cavities, together with the vocal folds, glottis and pharynx all of which may be involved in the production of speech sounds.
A speech sound produced with some constriction of the airstream.
Place of Articulation
The part of the vocal tract at which constriction occurs during the most consonants.
The tongue, lips and velum etc which change the shape of the vocal tract to produce different speech sounds.
A sound produced by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
A sound produced by inserting the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth.
The part of the roof of the mouth directly behind the top front teeth.
A sound produced by raising the tongue to the alveolar ridge.
A sound produced with air flowing past one or both sides if the tongue.
The region behind the alveolar ridge. Place of articulation for speech sounds such as shoe or beige.
Sound produced by curling the tip of the tongue back behind the alveolar ridge.
The bony section of the roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge.
The soft palate, the part of the roof of the mouth behind the hard palate.
A sound produced by raising the back of the tongue to the uvula.
The fleshy part appendage hanging down from the end of the velum, or soft palate.
Sound produced with constriction at the glottis, when the air is stopped completely in the glottis by tightly closed vocal folds, a glottal stop is produced.
Speech sound produced with oped non-vibrating vocal folds.
Speech sound produced with vibrating vocal cords.
Whether a speech sound is voiced or voiceless.
Describes a voiceless stop produced with a puff of air that results when the vocal folds remain open for a brief period after the release of the stop.
Phonetically voiceless stops in which the vocal folds begin vibrating immediately on release of the closure. E.g. p in spot.
A sound in which the airflow is briefly but completely stopped in the oral cavity.
Manner of Articulation
The way the airstream is obstructed as it travels through the vocal tract. Stop, nasal, affricate and fricative are some manners of articulation.
Non-nasal speech sound produced by raising the velum to close the nasal passage so that air can escape only through the mouth.
Speech sound produced with an open nasal passage permitting air to pass through the nose as well as the mouth.
A sound in which air is blocked momentarily in the oral cavity as it passes through the vocal tract.
A speech sound in which the airstream flows continually through the mouth, all speech sounds except stops and affricates.
Consonant sound produced with so narrow a constriction in the vocal tract as to create sound through friction.
A sound produced by a stop closure followed immediately by a slow release characteristic of a fricative, phonetical a sequence of stop + fricative.
Sounds in which the articulators are relatively open compared with other consonants.
The sound produced by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate.
A sound articulated by simultaneously raising the back of the tongue towards the velum and rounding the lips. E.g. w in english
Sound in which the tongue quickly touches the alveolar ridge, as in come pronunciations of latter.
A phonetic property of a segment that distinguishes that segment from another.
Additional markings on written symbols to specify various phonetic properties such as length, tone, stress, nasalisation. extra marks on characters that change its usual value.
A prosodic feature referring to the duration of a segment. two sounds may contrast in length.
Vowel sound produced with pursed lips.
Vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned forwards in the mouth.
Simple vowel. E.g. e in bed.
A dynamic vowel produced by the movement of the articulators from one position to another as in bite, bout, boy.
A sound produced with little or no obstruction of the airstream that is always preceded or followed by a vowel.
Duration (length), pitch or loudness of speech sounds.
A syllable with relatively greater length, loudness or greater pitch change that other syllables in a word and therefore perceived as prominent.
E.g. length/tone it is a prosodic feature.
A sequence of two identical sounds, a long vowel or long consonant denoted wither by writing the phonetic symbol twice.
A language in which the tone or pitch on a syllable is phonemic so that words with identical segments but different words.
Describes a sentence that is false by virtue of its meaning alone, irrespective of context. E.g. Kings are females.
High, mild or low tones.
The gradual lowering of the absolute pitch of tones during an utterance in a tone language. During downdrift, tones retain their relative values to one another.
Pitch contour of a phrase or sentence.
Intonation of a sentence
Two (or more) words that are identical except for one phoneme that occurs in the same position in each word. E.g. pain, bane, main.
The situation in which phones never occur in the same phonetic environment.
Phonetic property of a phoneme that accounts for its ability to contrast meanings of words. E.g. voice, continuant.
Phonetic properties of phonemes that account for their ability to contrast meanings of words.
A representation of phonological segments in which the columns represent segments and the rows represent features, each cell being marked with a + or - to designate the value of the feature for that segment.
A phonetic feature of a phone that is predictable by rule. E.g. aspiration in english.
Describes a non-distinctive, non-phonemic feature that is predictable from other feature values of the segment.
A non-distinctive, non-contrastive, redundant phonetic feature.
A phonetic feature that is distinctive. E.g. stop, voice, but not aspiration in english.
The representation of words and sentences after the application of phonological rules, symbolic transcription of the pronunciation of words and sentences.
The phonological representation of words and sentences prior to the application of phonological rules.
A sound belonging to the class that includes the vowels, glides, liquids and nasals, non-obstruents.
A phonetic feature of those sounds that may constitute the nucleus of syllables all vowels are syllabic, and liquids and nasals may be syllabic in such words as bottle button, bottom.
Phonetic feature distinguishing the class of obstuents, liquids and nasals, which are (+ consonantal) from other sounds (vowels and glides) that are ( - consonantal)
A sound that has vowel like acoustic properties and may function as a syllabic nucleus.
A sound articulated at the lips.
Phonetic feature that distinguishes vowels and liquids which are + vocalic from other sounds (obstruents, glides and nasals) that are - vocalic.
A sound articulated by raising the tip or blade of the tongue. Includes alveolars, post alveolars.
A sound belonging to the class that includes affricates and alveolar and postalveolar fricatives, characterised acoustically by an abundance of high frequencies perceived as hissing.
A class of sounds characterised by a phonetic property or feature that pertains to all members of the set.
A phonological process that changes feature values of segments to make them more similar. E.g. a vowel becomes + nasal when followed by + nasal consonant. also called feature spreading rules.
Ease of Articulation
The tendency of speakers to adjust their pronunciation to make it easier, or more efficient, to move the articulators. Phonetic and phonological rules are often the result of ease of articulation.
The transfer of phonetic features to adjoining segments to make the more alike. E.g. vowels become + nasal when followed by consonants that are + nasal.
Phonological rules that change feature values of segments to make them less similar.
A phonological rule that changes feature values of segments, either to make them more similar or less similar.
The insertion of one or more phones in a word.
The phonological process that reorders segments, often by transposing two sequential sounds. E.g. the pronunciation of ask in some english dialects as aks.
Phonological rules that obliterate the contrast between two phonemes in certain environments. E.g. t and d in writer and rider.
The steps in the application of rules to an underlying form that results in surface representation.
Rules that specify the pronunciation of morphemes, a morpheme may have more that one pronunciation determined by such rules.
Homorganic Nasal Rule
A phonological assimilation rule that changes the place of articulation feature of a nasal consonant to agree with that of a following consonant.
That part of a syllable that has the greatest acoustic energy, the vowel portion of a syllable.
One or more consonants that precede the syllable nucleus.
One or more consonants that follow the nucleus of a syllable. E.g. the st in priest.
The nucleus + coda of a syllable.
In tone languages, different tomes that make different words.
Rules stating permissible strings of phonemes. E.g. a word-initial nasal consonant may be followed by a vowel (in eng)
The hypothesis that a universal set of ranked phonological constraints exists where the higher the constraint is ranked the more influence it exerts on the language.
The sharing of most of the same phonetic features by a se of sounds.