Protestant and Catholic Reformations

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Luther was a religious revolutionary, but a social conservative.How is this statement accurate when one considers his attitude toward the German Peasants Revolt of 1524-26?

He changed religions and created Protestantism, but he did not challenge the social or sexual hierarchy. He supported the princes in their struggle to crush the German Peasants Revolt and believed that the role of woman was to be wife and mother.

In 1555, Charles V was forced to accept the Peace of Augsburg. In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia ended another German Civil War. What impact did these treaties have on the prospects of German unification under a singular sovereign?

(cuius regio, eius religio) German unity suffered since there were 360 separate and sovereign German princely states---makes unification more difficult.

Martin Luther was opposed to the sales of indulgences because he believed

the concept of the selling of indulgences was in conflict with the teachings of Christ

All of the following were abuses or problems within the Roman
Catholic Church during the time leading up to the Protestant

poor leadership at the Papal Level

sales of indulgences

sale of Church offices


pluralism---holding many Church offices
high Church officials living a worldly lifestyle

resentment amongst the Northern Europeans that the Catholic Church was controlled in the interests of the Italians-early nationalism


lack of education among some of the clergy

what are reasons the German princes supported Luther?

stood to gain Church lands

stood to gain control over a German Church that

would be subordinate to the princes

stood to gain control over the appointment of local Church officials---something desired by secular leaders everywhere

stood to stand up to the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, a Catholic, and thus retain autonomy and sovereignty over internal affairs
in the princely states, rather than become subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor

How was the response of Henri IV of France toward religious difference in his domains different from the reaction of Philip II toward religious differences within his domains?

Henri IV was a politique, whereas Philip II was a zealot

Describe Calvinism as it relates to the following. No sentences

on salvation: predestination

the period from 1542 and 1546 executions: lots of executions for "moral" crimes

attitude toward absence from sermons, dancing, card playing and drinking: these were "high crimes" in a moral community

Work ethic: espoused greatly

Michael Servetus: killed for his beliefs which differed from Calvinism

What was the response of the Catholic Church at the Council of
Trent on the following subjects

sales of indulgences: banned
absenteeism of clergy and simony: reformed
seven sacraments: kept them
Roman Inquisition: killed non-Catholics in Rome
Protestant Doctrine on salvation and the meaning of the Eucharist: Roman Catholics didn't compromise with Protestants of doctrine
Index of Prohibited Books: created

In short, the Council of Trent (the meeting of high ranking Church officials over an extended period of time in the mid-15th century) attempted to reform the abuses (reformist), but did not change the doctrine (conservative). Therefore, the Council of Trent was reformist, but conservative simultaneously.

What impact did the Jesuit order have on re-Catholicizing Europe?

The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) were successful in re-Catholicizing large areas of southern Germany and Poland. The Jesuits were also well known as advisors to Catholic monarchs and princes. Additionally, the Jesuits established schools for the poor and wealthy elite. Furthermore, the Jesuits were well known missionaries, thus the Catholic influence in Central and South America and as far away as the Philippines.

What event precipitated the 30 Years War?

1618-Defenestration of Prague---Bohemian Calvinist nobles kicked a Catholic emissary out a window (saved by landing in a pile of horse manure

What were three long term results of the Protestant Reformation?

Era of Religious Wars
growth of religious pluralism in Western Europe
decline in power of Roman Catholic Church
growth of state religions in Europe
growth in power of secular rulers over Church authorities
growth in literacy as Protestantism required reading of the Bible in vernacular
Max Weber would say the growth of capitalism associated with the Protestant work ethic

What colony in the New World was founded by Calvinists?


In a big picture sense, how was Philip II like his father Charles V?

able to defeat the Ottoman Turks (Charles in 1529 at siege of Vienna; Philip II at naval battle of Lepanto turning back Ottoman fleet)
religious zealots whose policies were ultimately unable to crush rebellions of Protestants in their imperial domains. Charles V couldn't crush Luther in Holy Roman Empire. Philip II couldn't crush Protestant growth in Netherlands; Philip II's intervention in France against the French Calvinists and in England against Elizabeth I both
ended in failure
intolerant toward Muslims and Jews in Spain, a move that ultimately undermined Spanish economic growth by undermining the middle
larger than life leaders of their day

"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, your soul into heaven

reported sales pitch of Johann Tetzel when selling
indulgences on behalf of the Medici Pope, 1517

Which of the following describes a major difference between the northern humanists and the Italian humanists?

Both looked to classical sources, but northern humanists also emphasized Christian sources

Name two Northern Christian humanists

Sir Thomas More of England and Erasmus of Rotterdam

Martin Luther originally posted his "95 Theses" as a response to what?

The sales of indulgences designed to raise money to build a new St. Peter's Basilica by the Medici Pope.

"At last, by the mercy of God, meditating day and night, I gave heed to the context of the words, namely, 'In it the righteousness of God is revealed', as it is written, 'He who through faith is righteous
shall live."

This passage was penned by:

Martin Luther---"justification by faith alone"

Among Martin Luther's most important beliefs were all of the following:

justification by faith alone
priesthood of all believers
denunciation of indulgences
subordination of the church to the secular

"We...take it for granted that you will release us from serfdom as true Christians, unless it should be shown us from the Gospel that we are serfs."
This statement was written by:

the German peasants asking for Martin Luther's backing

The following are true about Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism

Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism differed on the issue of clerical celibacy

Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism differed on the issue of the cult of saints

Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism differed on the issue of Papal supremacy

Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism differed on the issue of who could interpret the Bible.

What empire conquered Constantinople in 1453?

Ottoman Turks

Which of the following nations does not have a large percentage of its Christian population which follows Lutheran Protestantism?


Martin Luther believed that the most important role for a Christian woman was

to become a wife and a mother

"In conformity, therefore to the clear doctrine of Scripture, we assert, that by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."
The idea expressed in the passage above is most closely associated with the theological views of

Predestination of an omnipotent God of Calvin

The response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation included all of the following

the Index of Prohibited Books
the founding of the Society of Jesus
the founding of women's order active in education and care of the sick
the convening of the Inquisition

What was the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation

the Index of Prohibited Books
the founding of the Society of Jesus (Ignatius Loyola)
the convening of the Inquisition (three I's)
the founding of women's order active in education and care of the sick

The Jesuits may be characterized by ALL the following

A Spanish nobleman founded the religious order.
The Jesuits emphasized free will in their order
They founded schools for boys from both poorer and upper classes
The Jesuits became missionaries throughout the world.

"The art of printing is very useful insofar as it furthers the circulation of useful books, ... but it can be harmful if it is permitted to widen the influence of pernicious works. It will therefore
be necessary to maintain full control over the printers so that they may be prevented from bringing into print writing which are antagonistic to the Catholic faith."
This statement was authored by:

Pope Alexander VI as part of the Index of Prohibited Books

John Calvin established the center of his reformed church in:

Geneva. Switzerland

Calvinism became an influential force in all of the following countries

Scotland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France

The following are results of the Council of Trent

reaffirmation of basic Catholic doctrines such as papal supremacy and exclusive Church authority to interpret the Bible.
Prohibition of Church abuses---nepotism, simony and the sales of indulgence
Required clergy to renounce worldly pleasures
Authorized an Index of Prohibited Books

The Peace of Augsburg (1555) left unresolved which issue?

the place of Calvinism in the religious settlement (leads to 30 Years War, 1618-1648)

The primary purpose of the Peace of Augsburg was to

end the civil war between the Lutherans and Roman Catholics in the German states

Protestantism came to England as a result of the actions of

Henry VIII of England---the guy who had six wives

Identify the majority religion in each of the following nations by 1700:

A. Scotland---Presbyterianism (Calvinism was brought to Scotland by John Knox)
B. England---Church of England or Anglican Church (minority of Puritans, also Catholics remained for a time)
C. Italy---Roman Catholicism---Roman Inquisition!!!
D. Sweden---Lutheranism
E. Russia---Russian Orthodox came under the control of the Czars after Peter the Great

The "Religious Conflicts" of the 15th through 17th centuries in
European greatly influenced all of the following nation states or

France, England, Holland, the Hapsburgs

What were aspects of the French Civil Wars of Religion

A. the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572-the Medici Queen ordered the execution of nearly 3000 prominent Protestant (French Protestant
Calvinists were called Huguenots). This precipitated another round of French Civil Wars of Religion
B. Both Henri II and Henri III were assassinated
C. Henri IV was the leader of the French Calvinists (Huguenots). He converted the Roman Catholicism to appease the French Catholics saying famously, "Paris is well worth a mass." He issued the 1598 Edict of Nantes which protected the rights of French Calvinists (at least until Louis XVI revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685)

Elizabeth I earn the label "politique

Some die hard Catholics in England wanted to continue the pro-Catholic maneuvers of Elizabeth's half sister predecessor, "Bloody Mary". However, Elizabeth I made clear that she was a moderate on religion, not seeking to make religion a major issue and instead following a middle path between Catholic zealots and Puritanical zealots.

Followers of the Church of Geneva after 1536 were punished for
certain moral crimes. What were three of these crimes?

taking the Lord's name in vain
drinking, gambling, swearing
adultery (remember the "Scarlet Letter" in American Protestantism?)

What religious leader believed that, "He [God] has once for all determined both whom he would admit to salvation and whom he would condemn to destruction."?

John Calvin

Calvinism was appealing to the middle classes, later called the bourgeoisie, in Holland and other areas of Europe for all of the following reasons

its emphasis on a moral life
its intellectual emphasis
its approval of any job well done, hard work, and success.

Why did Henry VIII of England break with the Roman Catholic Church?

The Pope would not grant him a divorce

If you hadn't noticed, the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 didn't quite settle the disputes in the Holy Roman Empire. Round two covered approximately 30 years and is remarkable known to history as the "Thirty Years' War", 1618-1648. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio
(principle of territoriality) ---incorporated into the peace settlement at the close of the Thirty Years' War---signified

a weakening of the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor

Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)?

The loss of as much as one-third of the German-speaking population through war, plague, and starvation.

the following exemplify the steady development of centralized nation-states in the late 15th and early 16th centuries?

Spain, France, Italy, England, Poland

In which country did Protestantism attract the fewest followers?


The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following?

Proclaimed toleration of Calvinism in France

Which of the following forms of government would most likely win the approval of a politique political leader, like Henri IV of France or Elizabeth I of England?

Secular government in which religion is separated from the state

All of the following accurately describe how Philip II treated the "Spanish Netherlands" and their reaction to him

Philip's stern Catholicism and his Inquisition angered the increasingly Calvinist Netherlands.

The Protestants revolted and desecrated Catholic Churches.

Philip II sent the Duke of Alva to pacify the area, but his terror only alienated the Protestants even more.

The entire region known as the "Spanish Netherlands" (modern day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg) gained their de facto independence by 1608 and was a stronghold of Calvinism.

Relations between England of Elizabeth I and Spain of Philip II were made worse by

England's attacks on Spanish shipping in the New World.
The English "pirate" Hawkins' selling of goods directly to the Spanish colonies.
England's support of the Dutch rebellion.

What are three reasons why Philip II sent the Spanish Armada to England in 1588?

A. England supported the Dutch Calvinists in their war of independence against the Spanish Catholics sent by Philip II

B. England's pirates in the New World attacked Spanish galleons and England became a rival in the New World.

C. Elizabeth I ordered the execution of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, thus angering the Pope who offered a reward to the ruler who would "re-Catholicize" England

"Escorial", Philip II's great building project north of Madrid served all of the following

royal residence, ballet and opera stage, administrative center, (monastery?)

Which of the following did support Spanish foreign policy during the reign of Philip II?

Ferdinand of Austria

the following are states correctly matched with their religion

France---Gallican Roman Catholic

All of the following describe the reign of the King of Spain from

his name was Philip II
he was referred to as "The Most Catholic Monarch"
he ordered the invasion of England by the Spanish Armada in 1588
he failed to wipe out Protestantism within his domains

Which of the following is true of the 16th and 17th centuries in the Germanic speaking lands of Europe?

the German princes were successful in maintaining their traditional medieval "liberties" and autonomy

How are censorship and the Council of Trent related?

The Council of Trent established the Index of Prohibited Books, which censored those publications deemed harmful to the Catholic faith

How were the types of government associated with the Holy Roman Empire after the Treaty of Westphalia and the type of government associated with France after Henri IV differ?

Henri IV started the establishment of Bourbon absolutism, while the HRE remained a confederation of 360 autonomous and sovereign princely states.

Explain three major results of the Protestant Reformation?

A. Era of Religious Wars
B. religious pluralism
C. decline in power of Church organizations and a growth of secular power
D. growth of literacy in Protestant areas (needed to read the Bible)
E. Max Weber would say that capitalism grew out of Protestantism, but capitalism was alive and well in Catholic Italy long before 1517.
F. state Churches
G. growth in science

How were the Peace of Augsburg and the Peace of Westphalia similar and yet different?

A. Peace of Augsburg and Peace of Westphalia ended German Civil Wars of Religion

B. Peace of Augsburg recognized only Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism, whilst the Peace of Westphalian recognized Roman Catholicism,
Lutheranism, and Calvinism.

"You venerate the saints and delight in touching their relics, but you despise the best one they left behind, the example of a holy life...If the worship of Christ in the person of His saints pleases you so much, see to it that you imitate Christ in the saints."

"I dissent from those who are unwilling that the sacred Scriptures should be read by the unlearned and translated into the vulgar tongue, as though Christ had taught such subtleties that they can scarcely be understood even by a few theologians..."

The quotations above expresses the views of which of the following:

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Which of the following describes a major difference between the northern humanists and the Italian humanists?

Both looked to classical sources, but northern humanists also emphasized Christian sources.

Subsistence farming in the sixteenth century meant that:

people consumed what they raised in any given year

"In conformity, therefore to the clear doctrine of Scripture, we assert, that by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."

The idea expressed in the passage above is most closely associated with the theological views of:

John Calvin

Max Weber's 19th century (father of modern sociology) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism attempted to demonstrate:

Max Weber's 19th century (father of modern sociology) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism attempted to demonstrate:

Which of the following was the most important factor behind the Price Revolution of the sixteenth century?

Steady population growth and rising food costs

During the great witchcraft persecutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, those most often tried as witches were:

older women

Couples in early modern Europe generally put off marriage until they were, on average, in their mid- to late twenties because:

They needed to acquire land or learn a trade before they could support a family.

the following are true regarding Czech culture

Jan Hus was killed as a heretic in 1415.
Prague is the center of Czech culture.
Prague is located in the region called Bohemia.
The "Defenestration of Prague" was the spark that ignited the Thirty Years' War.

the following are true regarding the political situation in Europe in 1649

The French Bourbons and Hapsburgs remained enemies.

the Hohenzollern family of Brandenburg-Prussia emerged as the leaders of a militaristic state following the catastrophe of the 30 Years' War.

Sweden became the dominant Baltic power during the period from 1650-1700.

Cuius regio, eius religio was firmly reasserted.

the following were part of the quid pro quo between the
eastern European autocratic monarchs and their landed aristocracies
during the 17th and 18th centuries?

the monarchs retained sovereignty

the landed aristocrats gained virtual autonomy over their serf populations

the landed aristocracy served the state in the government bureaucracy or military

the monarchs retained control over the foreign policy decisions of the state

The term "politique" was used to describe monarchs such as Henry IV of France and Queen Elizabeth of England because they

practiced religious conciliation

The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following

the end of the Inquisition in Holland
the end of excessive taxation
the elimination of foreign officials
an alliance with French Protestants

Which of the following is true of the 16th century in the Germanic speaking lands of Europe?

the German princes were successful in maintaining their traditional medieval "liberties"

All of the following describe the reign of Philip II of Spain

His fleet was able to repel the spread of Turkish naval influence in the central Mediterranean.

A large percentage of the Spanish population held positions within the Catholic Church and were therefore exempt from taxation.

He was widowed when his wife, "Bloody Mary" died.

He was known as the "Most Catholic Monarch" as exemplified when he built a monastery into the center of Spanish government, Escorial

The expulsion of the Jews and Muslims from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition (SEE: Torquemada's Spanish Inquisition) was similar to the expulsion of the Huguenots from France under the Bourbon leader Louis XIV in 1685 in that

both countries were deprived of a skilled middle class

the following are true concerning the Jesuits

it was founded by Ignatius Loyola

serving as missionaries, Jesuits help restore parts of Poland and southern Germany to the Catholic Church

Jesuits were well known for the educational accomplishments

Jesuits were believers in free will

Which of the following is true of the German Peasants' Revolt of 1524-1526?

the revolt resulted from a combination of new religious ideas and peasant demands

At the time of Luther's "95 Theses", the Hapsburgs owned land in all of the following regions

France Comte
modern day Netherlands and Belgium
Naples and Sicily

The most powerful ruler at the time of the Reformation---who held the title of Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and Emperor of Austria was:

Charles V

At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church's leadership:

rejected Protestant positions on the sacraments, on the giving of wine to the laity during communion, on the cult of saints, and on clerical marriage.

The principle of territoriality (the right of the legitimate ruler to determine the faith of his subjects---cuius regio euis religio) was embodied in the:

Peace of Westphalia

All of the following were factors in the success of Luther's religious movement

the printing press
German nationalism
his alliance with the German princes
widespread concern amongst the German princes of the political intentions of the Hapsburg Emperor

The sculpture by Bernini, "St. Theresa in Ecstasy", is most emblematic of:

Catholic Reformation mysticism

In the first half of the 17th century, the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized authority in their territories by doing which of the following?

waging warfare against Protestant groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation

On issues of doctrine, Luther would continue to break with Catholic doctrine on all of the following

salvation---justification by faith alone

ministry of all believers and individual local interpretation of the scriptures

subordination of the Lutheran Church to secular officials

elimination of the cult of Saints, and the use of only Latin
during mass

Calvinism became the dynamic Protestant faith for the next 100 years following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. All of the following describe Calvinism

Calvin believed in predestination

Calvinism came to Scotland through the efforts of John Knox and became called Presbyterianism

Calvinism became popular in Bohemia, Switzerland, Holland, Scotland and in The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Calvin was finally dealt with as part of the
religious/political/economic settlement in the Peace of Westphalia within the Holy Roman Empire

the following are a monotheistic religion rooted in "Father Abraham"?

Judaism, Christianity, Islam

the following are characteristic of the reformation

lessening anti-Semitism
increasing power of ecclesiastical authority
era of religious/political warfare

Major Protestant and Roman Catholic leaders during the 16th century condemned Anabaptists because Anabaptists

advocated a complete separation of church and state

Which of the following best describes the Western European economy, as a whole, in the sixteenth century?

spiraling inflation (Price Revolution)

The teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland?

John Calvin

Which of the following best describes Luther's position on the social questions of the day?

he was a deeply conservative man who did not want to upset the traditional social order

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