Operations Management Test 3

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Trinity University, Dr. Colazo, Spring 2012

Management visual in industrial sites

using marks where everything goes, have visual control and daily meetings where they review all the performance charts

analyze work chart

shows the stations that the worker should go through and the order in which he should go

tact time

time between making two consecutive units

cycle time

time to make a unit

Jidoka

term for building quality into the process

diamond

symbol means "quality check" in analyze work chart

plus sign

symbol means "dangerous operation" in analyze work chart

black dot

symbol means "work in process" in analyze work chart

work in process

the one thing that you can't eliminate in production process; aka standard in process stock

waste

what are these examples of? overproduction, transportation, stock

check sheet

things they need to check and standardize

relations with suppliers

long term relation, buying forecasts fixed, huge technical support, financial support if needed (3 tiers)

Mura

term for unevenness; Toyota believes that they should reduce variations in suppliers as well as in their own work (their forecasts shouldn't be off)

toyota and unions

- in japan, single-company union (managers are members)
- overseas, trade unions (stikes viewed as disruptive; employees trust company more than union officials)

Daily Management

in hiring, previous experience not required, looking for potential, team players, personality important (humility NOT arrogance), family concept true, all efforts to retain employees

hammered down

"the nail that sticks up gets what"?

psychological contracts

they give you something, but expect something from you later; work comes first and everything else comes later

Kairoshi

"death by overworking"

Daily Management

multilayered, strong hierarchy, fact-based management, genchi-genbutsu, worker knows best, supervision's object is helping workers, errors are OK if we learn from them; good engineer first and then manager

Genchi-Genbutsu

"Go and See"; never make decisions based on reports, must go see

promotion and tenure

for-life employment assured; 99.9% promoted from inside; seniority is important; consensus builders; technical proficiency; must connect well with workers; interest in Japanese culture and values helps (do things because it's efficient and cost effective, not becasue they're nice)

decision making

nemawashi; overplanning for quicker execution; highly hierarchial, highly bureucratic, highly-paper based; information network

supervisors

these are expected to take full responsibility and take the blame for mistakes

workers

these are expected to reap the credit and success

Nemawashi

term for consensus building

Hoshin Kanri

"policy development" at every level

pull system

this is not the best for:
- high variability
- lumpy demand
- unpredictable demand

lumpy demand

lots of demand, then nothing, then lots of demand, etc. what is this called

TPS

aka "management by stress"

Fukuzui bon ni kaerazu

"spilled water cannot be brought back to the cup"

Plan, Do, Check, Act

PDCA cycle stands for what

PDCA Cycle, plan

what step is this? includes clarify objective, set performance metrics, stratify problem, analyze feasibility, set method, set target, set timeline, responsibilities

5 whys

ask yourself 5 times after you encounter a problem so that you get to the root cause (that way you're working on what is most necessary)

PDCA Cycle, do

what step is this? includes train as needed, understand process, get baseline, implement, get results, set new standards

PDCA cycle, check

what step is this? includes results versus target, analyze sources of reocurrance

PDCA cycle, act

what step is this? includes correct deviations from new standard, investigate abnormal clues, reflect with team members on what has been learned, think what the goal for a new cycle should be

quality circle report

team of 4 or 5 people who meet regularly in order to meet or solve a certain problem

A3 Report

this is the standardized report (standardized paper size) used in the classroom Quality Circle Report example

Gantt Chart

(from product management); they make chart of meetings (paid overtime) and all the steps they will follow in relation to the problem that they're trying to solve

Pareto Chart

histogram sorted in descending order of impact (made by an Italian economist)

might create unsafe conditions

what does a triangle with an S in it mean?

NFR

"not first run"; to repair it you have to take the car off the line, aka out of sequence

defects per vehicle

DPV stands for?

not first run

NFR stands for?

sales; process

Western countries are very ______ oriented while Eastern countries are very ______ oriented

Fishbone Chart

(has 4 M's) Man, Material, methods + ? what is this called? aka Cause and Effect Chart or Ishikawa Chart

X

means bad and called "batsu"

triangle

means so-so and called "saukaku"

circle

means good and called "maru"

circle within a circle

means very good and called "maru-maru"

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