Management visual in industrial sites
using marks where everything goes, have visual control and daily meetings where they review all the performance charts
analyze work chart
shows the stations that the worker should go through and the order in which he should go
time between making two consecutive units
time to make a unit
term for building quality into the process
symbol means "quality check" in analyze work chart
symbol means "dangerous operation" in analyze work chart
symbol means "work in process" in analyze work chart
work in process
the one thing that you can't eliminate in production process; aka standard in process stock
what are these examples of? overproduction, transportation, stock
things they need to check and standardize
relations with suppliers
long term relation, buying forecasts fixed, huge technical support, financial support if needed (3 tiers)
term for unevenness; Toyota believes that they should reduce variations in suppliers as well as in their own work (their forecasts shouldn't be off)
toyota and unions
- in japan, single-company union (managers are members)
- overseas, trade unions (stikes viewed as disruptive; employees trust company more than union officials)
in hiring, previous experience not required, looking for potential, team players, personality important (humility NOT arrogance), family concept true, all efforts to retain employees
"the nail that sticks up gets what"?
they give you something, but expect something from you later; work comes first and everything else comes later
"death by overworking"
multilayered, strong hierarchy, fact-based management, genchi-genbutsu, worker knows best, supervision's object is helping workers, errors are OK if we learn from them; good engineer first and then manager
"Go and See"; never make decisions based on reports, must go see
promotion and tenure
for-life employment assured; 99.9% promoted from inside; seniority is important; consensus builders; technical proficiency; must connect well with workers; interest in Japanese culture and values helps (do things because it's efficient and cost effective, not becasue they're nice)
nemawashi; overplanning for quicker execution; highly hierarchial, highly bureucratic, highly-paper based; information network
these are expected to take full responsibility and take the blame for mistakes
these are expected to reap the credit and success
term for consensus building
"policy development" at every level
this is not the best for:
- high variability
- lumpy demand
- unpredictable demand
lots of demand, then nothing, then lots of demand, etc. what is this called
aka "management by stress"
Fukuzui bon ni kaerazu
"spilled water cannot be brought back to the cup"
Plan, Do, Check, Act
PDCA cycle stands for what
PDCA Cycle, plan
what step is this? includes clarify objective, set performance metrics, stratify problem, analyze feasibility, set method, set target, set timeline, responsibilities
ask yourself 5 times after you encounter a problem so that you get to the root cause (that way you're working on what is most necessary)
PDCA Cycle, do
what step is this? includes train as needed, understand process, get baseline, implement, get results, set new standards
PDCA cycle, check
what step is this? includes results versus target, analyze sources of reocurrance
PDCA cycle, act
what step is this? includes correct deviations from new standard, investigate abnormal clues, reflect with team members on what has been learned, think what the goal for a new cycle should be
quality circle report
team of 4 or 5 people who meet regularly in order to meet or solve a certain problem
this is the standardized report (standardized paper size) used in the classroom Quality Circle Report example
(from product management); they make chart of meetings (paid overtime) and all the steps they will follow in relation to the problem that they're trying to solve
histogram sorted in descending order of impact (made by an Italian economist)
might create unsafe conditions
what does a triangle with an S in it mean?
"not first run"; to repair it you have to take the car off the line, aka out of sequence
defects per vehicle
DPV stands for?
not first run
NFR stands for?
Western countries are very ______ oriented while Eastern countries are very ______ oriented
(has 4 M's) Man, Material, methods + ? what is this called? aka Cause and Effect Chart or Ishikawa Chart
means bad and called "batsu"
means so-so and called "saukaku"
means good and called "maru"
circle within a circle
means very good and called "maru-maru"