psych final

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If a person exhibits persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions, they have a(n) _____.

psychological disorder

An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:

biopsychosocial approach.

In a study examining the biasing power of _____ labels, researchers went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of "hearing voices" saying "empty," "hollow," and "thud." This was the only complaint they reported and they displayed no other symptoms. They were admitted and released an average of 19 days later.

diagnostic

Deviant and stressful behaviors are more likely to be considered disordered when also judged to be a harmful _____.

dysfunction

At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

medical model

Dr. Sorenson meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Which of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR would Dr. Sorenson use to classify this client's personal function?

Axis V

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder affects approximately _____ percent of children and the appearance of the disorder occurs by age _____.

4;7

John is a patient who reports significant anger, hostility, and overall disregard for people. He has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. His personality disorder belongs on which Axis?

Axis ll

Symptoms that can be incorrectly perceived as those of a heart attack are most characteristic of _____ disorder.

panic

People who suffer from _____ are so preoccupied by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions that they are unable to function in their daily lives.

OCD

Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms that include haunting memories and nightmares, jumpy anxiety, social _____, and insomnia.

withdrawal

_____ proposed that, beginning in childhood, people repress intolerable impulses, ideas, and feelings, and that this submerged mental energy sometimes produces mystifying symptoms, such as anxiety.

Freud

Lenore is continually tense and plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from _____ disorder

generalized anxiety

Seven months ago, Quinn witnessed the gruesome murder of a close friend. Although many people expected him to suffer from this, he seemed to have the opposite reaction. He had a greater appreciation for life, his relationships with his family became more meaningful, and he became more involved in his faith. Quinn's response is known as:

post traumatic growth

This occurs, for example, when a person who is attacked by a fierce dog later develops a fear of all dogs.

stimulus generalization

Walter has an intense fear of speaking in public. Because he can only engage in one-on-one discussions, he has been passed over for promotions. He may be suffering from _____ phobia.

social

Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when she approaches any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear is the result of a traumatic childhood boating accident. The therapist's suggestion reflects a _____ perspective.

learning

_____ is to anxiety as a hurricane is to a windy day.

panic disorder

Susan has been diagnosed with panic disorder and refuses to leave her home without her husband. She fears any situation in which she cannot escape or find help when a panic attack would strike. Susan suffers from panic disorder as well as _____.

agoraphobia

A sudden loss of _____ is one symptom of a dissociative disorder.

memory

An effective way to break the cycle of depression is to explain _____ events in terms that are specific and temporary.

stressful

Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of _____.

hypochondriasis

Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by at least _____signs of depression.

5

The brains of people who suffer from depression tend to have low levels of:

serotonin

In terms of pervasiveness, _____ is to psychological disorders as the common cold is to mild physical illnesses.

depression

An overabundance of the neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be associated with a manic episode.

norepinephrine

A major characteristic of schizophrenia is inappropriate emotion. For example, some people suffering from schizophrenia exhibit _____, often described as a "zombielike" state of apparent apathy.

flat effect

Thirty-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her selective attention is deficient, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli (e.g., a spotlight shining in a window). This type of attention problem is thought to contribute to:

disorganized thoughts

Modern brain-scanning techniques reveal that some people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal activity in the _____ lobes.

frontal

Frank was seen laughing inappropriately in the library as if he was responding to internal stimuli. On the bus home, he was crying uncontrollably and suddenly became angered when a fellow passenger offered him a tissue. His excess of inappropriate behavior is known as:

positive symptoms

Mimi works in a hospital psychiatric unit. She cares for a patient with schizophrenia who often stands motionless in a corner for several hours. This _____ usually ends abruptly and the patient becomes quite agitated.

catatonia

While researchers have discovered that there are an excessive number of receptor sites for _____ in schizophrenia patient's brains, it is not the only neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenia.

dopamine

Victor's mother is frustrated because she cannot get Victor involved in any activities. Although he has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, she still expects him to do things around the house. But, most days he sits in a chair, with no expression on his face. This type of absence of appropriate behavior is known as:

negative symptoms

One cluster of personality disorders expresses eccentric behavior, and includes _____ personality disorder. People with this personality disorder can be described as having an emotionless disengagement.

schizoid

One cluster of personality disorders exhibits dramatic or impulsive behaviors. For example, someone with _____ personality disorder displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain praise.

histrionic

Thomas was called into his boss's office last week for once again overstepping the boundaries of his job position. Thomas had told the director of research that he was the one running the show and it would only be a matter of time before he was in his boss's position. When confronted, Thomas told his boss that it was true and no one seems to understand that he is the one in charge. Thomas would be considered to have a(n) _____ personality disorder.

narcissistic

Personality disorders can be classified into three clusters. One cluster expresses anxiety, such as that exhibited in _____ personality disorder. People with this personality disorder are so fearful of rejection that it predisposes them to withdraw from society.

avoidant

What are the three factors of being "abnormal"?

statistical infrequency (deviant)
personal discomfort (distressful)
impairment (dysfunctional)

what model is widely accepted in pyschopathology?

medical model

what are categorical approaches to diagnosis?

yes/no categories to answer questions

what are dimensional approaches to diagnosis?

everyone falls somewhere on the scale
continuous phenomena

what is a diathesis?

(nature) predisposition or susceptibility to disorder

what is a comorbidity?

simultaneous occurence of more than one disorder in same person

what is generalized anxiety disorder?

a free floating anxiety that is nonspecific

what neurotransmitters play a role in anxiety disorders?

GABA and Serotonin

as serotonin goes down depression goes ___?

up

what are seligman's negative attributional styles?

internal, global, stable

what are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought,

what are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

behavioral deficits
flat affect=shows no emotion
alogia=grunt/incomprehensible word
avolition=lack of motivation

which symptoms respond better to medication?

positive

what is paranoid schizophrenia?

one or more related delusional beliefs connected to hallucinations
prognosis=better, fixed w meds

what is disorganzied schizophrenia?

walk around argue with light poles, collect random things, bizare/extreme emotions
prognosis=institutionalized

what is catatonic schizophrenia?

back and forth pacing/no motor activity

what is undifferentiated schizophrenia?

not in touch with reality, but doesnt fit into category
early stage of the others

what is residual schizophrenia?

history of schiz but no major symptoms, doesn't fit

what is a structural abnormailites in the brain for schizos?

enlarged ventricles and smaller thalamus

what is subtance abuse?

negative consequences related to substance use at work/school/home

what is ADHD?

inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity

what is the onset of autism?

prior to 3

what are the three impairments of autism?

social interaction (unaware of others/oblivious)
communication (verbal and nonverbal/no usable language/no eye contact)
restricted repertoire of activity/interests (comfort zones)

_____ psychologists explore how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

social

He proposed cognitive dissonance theory.

Festinger

According to the _____, people explain behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.

attribution theory

____are feelings that are based on beliefs. They predispose people to react in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

attitudes

People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain:

the behavior of strangers who have been observed in only one type of situation.

Once people have agreed to a small request, they have a tendency to comply with a larger request. This is known as the _____ phenomenon.

foot in the door

In _____ cultures people are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error while in _____ cultures they are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error.

individualist;collectivist

Early one Halloween evening, Bart's friends asked him to join them in smashing their neighbors' decorative pumpkins. He complied. Later, he was surprised by his own failure to resist them when they asked him to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:

foot in the door

This afternoon, Mary's boss wants to meet with her. She is sure it is about the customers who complained about her yesterday. The best-case scenario would be for Mary's boss to decide that her behavior was the result of:

a situational attribution

We are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error if:

we have a long term friendship with the person we are observing

_____ result(s) from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

normative social influence

A person in a group tends to exert MORE effort when he is individually accountable than when he is working with others toward a common goal. This is known as:

social loafing

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family, simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of _____ social influence

normative

In the Asch conformity experiments, researchers find that conformity to the group increases when

group is animous

At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This best illustrates _____.

social facilitation

A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates _____.

group polarization

During a riot, a large sporting event, or mob action, we lose self-awareness and self-restraint. This is known as:

deindividuation

_____ is revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

self disclosure

____ is (are) shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

Superordinate goals

After the events of 9/11, some Americans began boycotting Arab-American stores and lashing out at any Middle-Eastern person they saw. This behavior is best explained in terms of:

scapegoat theory

Aggressive behavior in males has been linked with low levels of _____ and high levels of _____.

serotonin;testosterone

People's _____ is a good predictor of their frequency of dating.

physical attractiveness

This new neighborhood is full of drug addicts living in run down houses in horrible condition. He often sees them struggling to find food on the street and shivering through the cold winter. When his friend asks him if he feels bad seeing these people suffer he replies, "Good people don't end up that way, so I don't feel bad for them." His attitude best illustrates:

just world phenomenon

Tameka volunteers twice a week at a homeless shelter along with members of her church youth group. They tutor and read to young elementary age children who are housed in the shelter. Tameka volunteerism is an example of the _____.

social responsibility norm

Muzafer Sherif (1966) placed 22 Oklahoma City boys in two separate areas of a Boy Scout camp. He then put the two groups through a series of competitive activities, with prizes going to the victors. Before long, each group became intensely proud of itself and hostile to the other group. Sherif found that the best way to reduce the conflict was to create _____.

superordinate goals

Shortly after learning he did not make it onto his high school football team, Alex vandalized the team's locker room and broke several of the school's windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of the _____ principle.

frustration aggression

John and Julie have been married for 10 years. Their love is best explained as _____ love.

companionate

You decide that your free time over the weekend is not as important as the good feelings and joy of giving back to the community so you decide to volunteer at the Special Olympics. This illustrates the:

social exchange theory

Tim enjoys watching violent action movies and television shows on most evenings as well as listening to music with violent lyrics. When faced with real-life conflict he tends to respond with aggressive behavior because he believes that he needs to "act like a man." According to social psychologists he has learned _____, which are mental tapes for how to act due to this exposure to media violence.

social scripts

Kelly is a Republican and Carlos is a Democrat. Both believe that the members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of any other party. This belief best illustrate _____.

ingroup bias

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the actions of the other country as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates:

mere image perceptions

Laurie and Jim have been married for 20 years. When asked, Laurie indicated that what she most appreciated about their marriage was that they both freely give and receive affection and that they share decision-making and household responsibilities. Laurie's description is an example of:

equity

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