What are the types of tissues that are in the body?
Epitheial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue, and Nerve Tissue.
What does Epithelial Tissue do?
Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secrets, absorbs, and filters. Found on the skin surface and GI tract organs and other hollow organs.
What does Connective Tissue do?
Supports, protects, binds other tissues together. Found in the bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue.
What does Muscle Tissue do?
Contracts to cause movement. Found in muscles attached to bone, muscles of the heart, and muscles of the walls of hollow organs.
What does Nerve Tissue do?
Internal communication. Found in the brain, spinal card, and nerves.
What are the two main types of Epithelial Tissue?
Glandular and covering and lining epithelia.
Where is Covering and Lining Epithelia found?
On external and internal surfaces.
What is Glandular Epithelia found?
Secretory tissue in glands.
What are the characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
Cells have polarity, apical (upper feet) and basal (lower, attached) surfaces. Are composed of closely packed cells. Supported by connective tissue. Avascular but innervated. High rate of regeneration.
What are Apical Surfaces on Epithelial Tissue?
Surfaces may bear microvilli. I.E: Brush boarders of intestinal lining. Or cillia. I.E: Lining of trachea.
What is the difference between Simple Epithelia and Stratified Epithelia?
One has one layer, one has more than one layer.
What types of cells can be found in Epithelial Tissue?
Cuboidal, Columnar, and Squamous.
What is Simple Squamous Epithelium?
Single layer of flattened cells with disc shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. The simplest form of Epithelia.
What is the function of Simple Squamous Epithelium?
Allows passage of material by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
What is Simple Squamous Epithelium found?
Kidney Glomueri, air sacs of lungs, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. Lining of ventral body cavities (serosae).
What is Simple Cuboidal Epithelium?
Single layer of cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei.
What is the function of Simple Cuboidal Epithelium?
Secretion and Absorption.
Where is Simple Cuboidal Epithelium found?
Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory surfaces of small glands; ovary surface.
What is Simple Columnar Epithelium?
Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cillia, layer may containg mucus secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells).
What is the function of Simple Columnar Epithelium?
Absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substances. Ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by cillary action.
Where is Simple Columnar Epithelium found?
Noncilliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands. Ciliated variety lines small bronci, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
What is Pseudostratified Epithelium?
Single layer of cells of different heights, some not reaching the free surface, nuceli seen at different levels, may contain muscus secreting cells and bear cillia.
What is the function of Pseudostratified Epithelium?
Secretion, particularly of mucus, propulsion of mucus by cillary action.
Where is Pseudostratified Epithelium found?
Noncilliated type is found in males sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands. Ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
What is Stratified Squamous Epithelium?
Thick membrane composed of several cells; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active. Surface cells are flattened (squamous).
What is the functiono of Stratified Squamous Epithelium?
Protects underylying tissue in areas subjected to abrasion.
Were is Stratified Squamous Epithelium found?
Lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina. Keratinzed version forms skin surface.
What is Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium?
Several layers of cuboidal cells. Quite rare in body. Found in some sweat and mammory glands. Typically two layers thick.
What is Stratified Columnar Epithelium?
Several layers of columnar cells. Limited distribution in the body. Small amount in pharnyx, male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts. Also occurs at transition areas between two other types of epithelia.
What is Transitional Epithelium?
Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal. Basal cells cuboidal or columnar, surface cells dome shaped or squamous like, depending on degree of organ stretch.
What is the function of Transitional Epithelium?
Stretches readily and permits distention of urinary organ by contained urine.
Where is Transitional Epithelium found?
Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra.
What is a Gland?
One or more cells that makes and secretes aqueous fluid.
What is Glandular Epithelia classified by?
Site of product release - endocrine or exocrine. Relative number of cells forming the gland, unicellular (GOBLET CELL), or multicellular.
What is an Endocrine Gland?
Ductless gland, secretes hormones that travel through the lymph or blood to target organs.
What are Exocrine Glands?
More numerous than Endocrine Glands, secrete products into ducts. Secretion released onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities. Examples include mucus, sweat, oil, and salivary glands.
What is the only important Unicellular Exocrine Gland?
What are Multicellular Exocrine Glands?
Composed of a duct and a secretory unit. Classified according to duct type (simple or compound), and structure of the secretory unit (tubular, avelolar, tubulo aveolar).
What are the four types of Connective Tissue?
Connective, Cartiledge, Blood, and Bone.
What is the major function of Connective Tissue?
Binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation of blood.
What are Characteristics of Connective Tissue?
Mesenchyme as there common tissue of origin, varying degrees of vascularity, cells separated by nonliving extracellular matrix (ground substance and fibers).
What are the types of Connecitve Tissue Proper?
Loose Connective Tissue, and Dense Connetive Tissue.
What are the types of Loose Connective Tissue?
Areolar, Adipose, and Reticular.
What are the types of Dense Connective Tissue?
Dense regular, Dense Irregular, Elastic.
What is Areolar Connective Tissue?
Gel- like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and some white blood cells.
What is the function of Aerolar Connective Tissue?
Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid.
Where is Areolar Connective Tissue found?
Widely distributed under epithelia of body. I.E: Forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries.
What is Adipose Connective Tissue?
Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse, closed packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet.
What is the function of Adipose Connective Tissue?
Provides reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs.
Where is Adipose Connective Tissue found?
Under skin in hypodermis, around kidneys and eyeballs, within abdomen, in breasts.
What is Reticular Connective Tissue?
Network of reticular fibers in a typical looks ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network.
What is the function of Reticular Connective Tissue?
Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages.
Where is the location of Reticular Tissue?
Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen).
What is Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast.
What is the function of Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Attaches muscle to bones or to muscles, attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction.
Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue found?
Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.
What is Dense Irregular Connective Tissue?
Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast.
What is the function of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue?
Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength.
Where is Dense Irregular Connective Tissue found?
Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract.
What is Elastic Connective Tissue?
Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers.
What is the function of Elastic Connective Tissue?
Allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration.
Where is the location of Elastic Connective Tissue?
Walls of large arteries; within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column; within the walls of the bronchial tubes.
What are the three types of Cartilage?
Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage.
What is Hyaline Cartilage?
Amorphouse but firm matrix; collage fibers form an imperceptible network; condroblasts produce the matrix and when mature chrodrocytes lie in lacunae.
What is the function of Hyaline Cartilage?
Supports and reinforces; has resillient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress.
What is the location of Hyaline Cartilage?
Forms most of the embryonic skeleton, covers the ends of long bones in join cavities; forms costal cartilages of the rib; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx.
What is Elastic Cartilage?
Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix.
What is the funciton of Elastic Cartilage?
Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility.
What is the location of Elastic Cartilage?
Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis.
What is Fibrocartilage?
Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage;thick collage fibers predominate.
What is the function of Fibrocaritlage?
Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.
What is the location of Fibrocartilage?
Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint.
What is Osseous Tisse?
Bone. Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized.
What is the function of Osseous Tissue?
Bone supports and protects; provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood and cell formation.
Where is Osseous Tissue found?
What is blood?
Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma).
What is the function of blood?
Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances.
Where is blood found?
Containined within the blood vessels.
What are the steps in Tissue Repair?
Inflammation, release of inflammatory chemicals, dilation of blood vessels, increase in evssel permeability, clotting.
What is the Organization and Restored blood supply in steps in Tissue Repair?
The blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue, epithelium begins to regenerate, fibroblasts produce collage fibers to bridge the gap, debris is phagocytized.
What is Regeneration and Fibrosis in Steps in Tissue Repair?
The scab detaches, fibrous tissue matures; epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue. Results in a fully regenerated epithelium with underylying scar tissue.