collective name for all of the water on Earth
collective term encompassing all life on Earth; spans across lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere
organic material made from living things (ex. wood, peat, organic matter in soils); may be burned as a source of energy
fluid-like layer bellow lithosphere that allows lithosphere plates to move on top
subduction zones, deep trenches (Mariana Trench in Pacific), Himalaya Mountain Range
convergent boundary examples (3)
mountain ranges (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), rift valleys (African Rift Valley)
divergent boundary examples (2)
anything that is or was living
anything that results from interactions with living things (ex. parasitism, competition)
anything that is nonliving, or is not a direct product of a living thing
any nonliving thing that affects life, such as the weather or climate, including temperature, rainfall, and sunlight; also soil texture and moisture, atmospheric pressure, the presence of chemicals and compounds
the interation of all the living organisms in an area with their nonliving environment (terrestrial and aquatic)
a group of organisms that share similar physiucal and behavioral traits and that can intebreed to produce fertile offspring
one or more species that are essential to the maintenence of the ecosystem; if removed from the ecosystem, system at risk of collapsing
sea otters, coyotes (predators), African elephants (weeding), environmental engineers (manipulation)
4 keystone species and reasons?
the autotrophs found in large numbers at the base of an ecosystem's food web
species especially sensitive to changes in the environment
frogs, spotted salamanders (water pollution), mayflies (high water quality, pollutants)
3 indicator species and what they indicate?
where an organism lives
an organism's role within the ecosystem
habitat (coral reef), niche (predatory fish)
habitat and niche of a shark?
the assemblage of all organisms living and interacting in a particular area
single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
first trophic level?
primary consumers, herbivores
second trophic level?
secondary and tertiary consumers
third trophic level?
average number of trophic levels in an ecosystem?
a large region of the Earth characterized by a distinc set of climate conditions (temperature, precipitation)
biome characterized by the growth of mature trees and a closed canopy; rainfall must be high enough tosupport growth of large trees; tend to have HIGHEST precipitation; seasonal temperature range
forests that are evergreen and are warm year-round with a large amt. of rainfall
forests that are usually deciduous with 4 equal seasons, a wide range of temperatures, and seasonal rainfall
boreal forest (taiga)
forests that are evergreen with short growing seasons, long winters, and moderate to high precipitation (rain, snow, dew)
biome characterized by a lack of trees and an abundant growth of grasses and other herbaceous (nonwoody) plants; low rainfall
grassland like the African savannah that tend to be warm year-round, with a growing season largely determined by droughts
grassland like the prairies of the central US and steppes of Russia, with cold winters and short growing seasons; rich soil
driest biome, with so little rainfall that diversity of life tends to be low
desert with extremely high temperatures and sandy soil
desert that includes the Polar desert, with extremely low temperatures and precipitation; permafrost or ice cover for most of the year
an are in which the soils are flooded with water during part of its natural cycle
swamps, marshes, bogs, fens
wetland examples? (4)
low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation
an area where saltwater mixes with fresh water (brackish water), often found near mouth of river; HIGH biodiversity
a zone of storage or containment
calcium carbonate in limestone deposits, fossil fuel
2 carbon reservoirs?