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Functions of the urinary system include
ANSWER:
regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions.
helping to stabilize blood pH.
conservation of valuable nutrients.
All of the answers are correct.

e

Urine is eliminated through the
ANSWER:
kidney.
urinary bladder.
ureter.
liver.
urethra.

e

The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by
ANSWER:
releasing erythropoietin.
adjusting the volume of water lost in urine.
releasing renin.
regulating NaCl levels in the blood.
All of the answers are correct.

e

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
ANSWER:
the calyces.
the urethra.
the ureters.
blood vessels.
lymphatics.

c

Blood is supplied to a nephron by its __________.
ANSWER:
afferent arterioles
cortical radial arteries
efferent arterioles
renal arteries

a

Urine flows first from the papilla to the _________.
ANSWER:
minor calyces
urethra
major calyces
renal pelvis

a

The step in kidney function where fluid is forced out of the blood is __________.
ANSWER:
from glomerular capsule to PCT
from PCT to DCT
from afferent arteriole to glomerulus
from glomerulus to glomerular capsule

d

The process of filtration occurs at the
ANSWER:
nephron loop (loop of Henle).
proximal convoluted tubule.
glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.
collecting duct.
distal convoluted tubule.

c

The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers
ANSWER:
endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.
fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes.
podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus.
filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores.
dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule.

a

One of the organic substances not normally excreted by the kidney is __________.
ANSWER:
urea
uric acid
creatinine
glucose

d

Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following, except
ANSWER:
increase the glomerular filtration rate.
trigger renin release.
produce renal ischemia.
reduce blood flow to kidneys.
produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.

a

Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
Hint A.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
blood cells and large particles
water and small solutes
ions, such as sodium and potassium
nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea

a

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
Hint B.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
colloid osmotic pressure of blood
gravity

a

Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?
Hint C.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
glucose
creatinine
chloride
protein

d

If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
net filtration would decrease
net filtration would not be altered
net filtration would increase

a

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
Hint E.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
60 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
50 mm Hg
35 mm Hg

b

The process of filtration is driven by
ANSWER:
blood osmotic pressure.
renal pumping.
blood hydrostatic pressure.
active transport.
solvent drag.

c

One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
ANSWER:
decrease secretion of aldosterone.
increase filtration into glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.
decrease urinary albumin concentration.
increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex.
increase release of angiotensin II by the suprarenal glands.

d

What triggers the movement of water out of the descending limb?
ANSWER:
Water is actively transported by cells of the descending limb.

Ions are transported out of the ascending limb, and the resulting concentration gradient in the peritubular fluid pulls water out of the descending limb.

Ions are actively transported out of the descending limb, and water follows.

There is a hydrostatic pressure gradient in the descending limb that allows water to filter out.

b

What triggers the movement of water out of the descending limb?
ANSWER:
Water is actively transported by cells of the descending limb.
Ions are transported out of the ascending limb, and the resulting concentration gradient in the peritubular fluid pulls water out of the descending limb.
Ions are actively transported out of the descending limb, and water follows.
There is a hydrostatic pressure gradient in the descending limb that allows water to filter out.

b

The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves
ANSWER:
an increase in facultative water reabsorption.
aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells.
the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the neurohypophysis.
a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
All of the answers are correct.

e

If a urine sample is distinctly yellow in color, which of the following will be true?
ANSWER:
It will contain large amounts of urobilin.
It will have a low pH.
It will contain excess chloride ion.
Its pH is below normal.
It will have the odor of ammonia.

a

Antidiuretic hormone
ANSWER:
causes the kidneys to produce a larger volume of very dilute urine.
release is insensitive to the osmolarity of interstitial fluid.
is secreted by the anterior pituitary.
increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.
is secreted in response to low potassium ion in the blood.

d

When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
ANSWER:
water reabsorption increases in the loop of Henle.
permeability to water in the collecting system increases.
a concentrated urine is produced.
less urine is produced.
the osmolarity of the urine decreases.

e

Agents that increase urine excretion are known as
ANSWER:
diuretics.
alpha-1 antagonists.
calcium channel blockers.
muscarinic antagonists.
ADH agonists.

a

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