An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion.
Essential Amino Acid
An amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food in prefabricated form
The first stage of food processing in animals: the act of eating
The portion of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and the anus;
-FUNCTIONS: mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces.
Essential Fatty Acid
An unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make.
-A gland with exocrine and endocrine tissues.
-The exocrine portion functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct;
-The ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
The SECOND STAGE IN FOOD PROCESSING in animals:
-The breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
The THIRD STAGE OF FOOD PROCESSING in animals:
-The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's body
An animal, such as a cow or sheep, with multiple stomach compartments specialized for herbivorous diet.
The MIXTURE of partially DIGESTED FOOD and DIGESTIVE JUICES formed in the stomach.
The 1st section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
A large internal organ in vertebrates that performs diverse functions, such as;
-Maintaining blood glucose level
-Detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.
A ringlike band of muscle fibers that controls the size of an opening in the body, such as the passage between the esophagus and the stomach.
The breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of an animal's body.
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and;
-Serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons.
An enzyme that digests proteins by hydrolysis
A substance that an organism CANNOT SYNTHESIZE from any other material and therefore must absorb in preassembled form.
A viscous and slippery mixture of glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water;
-That moistens and protects the membranes lining body cavities that open to the exterior.
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine
The largest section of the vertebrate large intestine;
-Functions in water absorption and formation of feces.
A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
An enzyme preset in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins.
A small, finger-like extension of the vertebrate cecum;
-Contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
-A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder;
-Enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
An organic molecule required in the diet in very small amounts.
Many vitamins serve as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.
The INACTIVE form of pepsin
Secreted by CHIEF CELLS located in gastric pits of the stomach.
A lipid transport globule composed of fats mixed with cholesterol and coated with proteins.
A muscular tube that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.
(1)- An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross.
(2) In flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
Hepatic Portal Vein
A large vessel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content.
The 4th and FINAL stage of food processing in animals:
-The passing of undigested material out of the body.
The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of the large intestine;
The principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.
One of many fine, finger-like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area.
The blind pouch forming one branch of the large intestine.
The process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water.
A gland associated with the oral cavity that secretes substances that:
-Begin the process of chemical digestion.
The mouth of an animal.
A lubricated ball of chewed food.
A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals, including cnidarians and flatworms, that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
The terminal portion of the large intestine, where the feces are stored prior to elimination.
In nutrition, a simple nutrient that is inorganic and therefore cannot be synthesized in the body.
(1) Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that push food along the canal.
(2) A type of movement on land produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from front to back, as in many annelids.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch (plant glucose) and glycogen (animal glucose) into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.
A hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite.
Complete Digestive Tract
A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called an alimentary canal.
A complete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus.
The wastes of the digestive tract.