Oceanography

Created by alismypal 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Chapters 9-14

Surface currents are primarily driven by:

Wind

About 10% of the water in the world ocean is involved in:

Surface Currents

t/f Because of the coriolis effect, surface currents in the Northern Hemisphere flow to the left of the wind direction

False (Right)

Continents and basin topography often block continuous flow and help deflect the moving water in a circular pattern. The flow around the periphery of an ocean basin is called:

A gyre

t/f In Ekman transport, the direction of the flow of water is 90 degrees to the right of the wind direction (in the northern hemisphere).

True

Which of the following is NOT a geostrophic gyre?

Antarctic Circumpolar Current (or Westwind Drift)

Water flows in how many great surface circuits?

6

A boundary current that is narrow, fast, and deep is typically called

Western Boundary Current

A wide, shallow, slow current is typical of:

Eastern Boundary Current

The Canary current in the North Atlantic is shallow, and broad and cold. What type of current is it?

Eastern Boundary Current

t/f Surface currents distribute tropical heat worldwide and influence weather and climate.

True

The Scilly Isles off the west coast of England have tropical plants as a result of...

The warm Gulf Stream that brings tropical warmth up from the equator in the Atlantic

Wind induced upward movement of water that brings deep, cold, nutrient rich water toward the surface is called:

Upwelling

Downwelling helps the deeper ocean with..

supply of dissolved gases and nutrients
assists in the distribution of living organisms

t/f Winds that blow steadily across the ocean that induces long sets of counter-rotating vortices (or cells) at the surface water is called Southern Oscillation.

False (Langimuir Circulation)

During major ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events, sea level in the eastern Pacific.

Rises by as much as 20 centimeters

Because density is a function of water's temperature and salinity, the movement of water due to differences in density is called:

Thermohaline circulation

t/f The global pattern of deep circulation resembles a vast "conveyor belt" that carries surface water to the depths and back again

True

A wavelength is determined by the

horizontal distance between two wave crests

The time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength is known as

Wave period.

The wave you surf on in California may have come from the middle of the Pacific. What has been transmitted across the ocean basin?

energy

t/f The vertical distance between a wave crest and the adjacent trough is the wavelength.

False (Wave height)

t/f A Wave that is moving through water deeper than one-half of the wavelength are known as deep water waves.

True

t/f The slowing and bending of waves as they approach the shore from an angle is called wave reflection.

False (Wave REFRACTION)

A wave that cannot "feel" the bottom is a ________________

Deep Water Wave

The two types of waves that are always or almost always deep water waves are ____________ and _____________.

capillary waves; wind waves.

The factors necessary to make a really large wind wave are _____________, ___________, and ___________.

wind strength, wind duration, and fetch

The abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by a tropical cyclone (hurricane) is called a ___________.

storm surge.

Which of these lists is arranged in order from smallest wavelength to longest wavelength?

capillary wave, wind wave, tsunami, tides

Wind waves are examples of orbital waves in which:

Particles of water move in closed circles

t/f Progressive waves and orbital waves involved movement of water particles until a depth of one quarter the wavelength.

False

A wind wave of 20-meter wavelength will act as a _____ if it is passing through water MORE than 10 meters deep.

Deep-water wave

A strong wind that blows continuously in one direction for almost three days will create the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of specific strength, duration, and fetch.

Fully developed sea

_____ waves occur in the ocean at the base of the pycnocline, especially at the bottom edge of a steep thermocline.

Internal

A tsunami can be caused by:

Asteroid impacts
Landslides
Volcanic eruption

t/f Often a dangerous consequence of Tsunamis is that the trough of the wave occurs first and subsequently attracts people to explore further offshore.

True

Modern tsunami warning systems depend on:

Submerged devices
Satellites
Seabed Seismometers

What, in December of 2004, was one of the worlds worst natural disasters on record, killing nearly 300,000 people in all.

The Sumatran Tsunami

The moon has a greater effect on the Earth's tides than the sun because

it is much closer to the Earth than is the sun

The two largest tide-generating forces on earth are

gravitational pull of the moon and sun

Spring tides occur when

the Earth, Moon and Sun are all in alignment

Neap tides

occur one week after spring tides

The central point, or node, for a tide in an ocean basin where little change in vertical height is masured is known as the:

Amphidromic point

A tide with two unequal high water marks each tidal cycle is called

mixed semidiurnal tide

In a region with semidiurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next low tide will occur at

6:12 AM

In a region with diurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next high tide will occur at __________________.

12:50 AM the following day

A wave of water moving up a river, initiated by tidal action and normal resonances within a river estuary, is called ________________.

A tidal bore

t/f The tidal cycle is 24 hrs 50 minutes long because the moon rises 50 minutes later each day.

True

t/f True amphidromic systems do not develop in narrow basins because there is no space for rotation.

True

When high or low tidal currents begin to change direction, it is called:

Slack water

What organism uses the tides, specifically high spring tides, to time their breeding behaviors?

Grunion

What is the tidal datum in reference to in regions with mixed tides?

Mean lower low water (MLLW)

What is the relationship between the heights of tides and the amphidromic point?

Heights increase with distance from the amphidromic point

What type of current occurs during a high tide?

Flood current

What is an ebb current?

The fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches

The east coast of the United States receives two high tides and two low tides of roughly the same heights per day. What kind of tidal pattern is this?

Semidiurnal tides

t/f Tides can have a wavelength equal to one tenth of the Earth's circumference.

False

t/f High tides are associated with the area between bulges.

False

The transport of sediment along the beach is due to

Longshore currents

Berms, berm crests, and longshore bars are all features of:

Depositional coastlines

A fjord is

a long, narrow, steep-sided, flooded coastal valley

t/f Barrier islands are exposed sandbars parallel to the coast, form when sediments accumulate on submerged rises paralleling the shoreline.

True

A is the area where ocean meets the land and a is the larger zone affected by the processes that occur at that boundary.

shore; coast

t/f A coral reef coast is a product of living organisms.

True

What is usually the highest point on a beach?

Berm crest

What is a coastal cell?

A section of coastline that has a balance of input and output of sand

What is the term for global, long term-change to sea level?

Eustatic change

Which of the following are NOT factors of Eustatic change?

Movement of the longshore current

What type of coastline has sea caves, blowholes, sea arches and sea stacks?

An erosional beach

What is the name for a relatively old coast that are steadily growing due to their sediment accumulation?

Depositional coasts

How much of the United States coastline is considered to be depositional?

30%

What type of reef is a ring-shaped island of coral with a lagoon at its center?

Atoll

t/f Seawalls increase the amount of erosion along the shore because they deflect wave energy.

True

t/f Global glaciation events does not create variations in local sea level changes.

False

During the sand on a depositional beach accumulates and during the the sand erodes from the beach and is moved to an offshore location.

summer; winter

Chesapeake Bay is an example of:

A drowned river valley

What is a factor that is instrumental in shaping an erosional coast?

Wind-driven grit abrasion
Stream erosion
Dissolution of acids and bases

High energy coasts tend to be

Erosional
Selectively straightened

What layer of the ocean is permanently devoid of light?

Aphotic zone

What is the largest biogeochemical cycle?

Global Carbon cycle

What is a more accurate term for the feeding relationship of organisms involving multiple organisms at each trophic level for a higher level organism to eat?

Food web

What is a heterotroph?

An organism that eat other organism

t/f Before nitrogen can be used by organisms to make proteins and nucleic acids, it must first be fixed into a usable form such as nitrates.

True

A salmon migrates from the ocean to freshwater rivers to spawn. Which of the following best describes what type of environment the salmon moves from and into?

Hypertonic to Hypotonic

What open water zone is near shore and over the continental shelf?

Neritic zone

Movement of a substance along a concentration gradient where substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration is called:

Diffusion

Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane is called:

Osmosis

What is needed for living matter to function?

Energy

Chemosynthesis is the main method of binding energy into carbohydrates on the planet.

False

t/f Hydrothermal vent communities depend on chemosynthesis in order to capture energy and convert inorganic molecules into glucose molecules.

True

t/f Most biological productivity in the ocean occurs in the aphotic zone.

False

t/f On average, the ocean has a higher primary productivity at 150 gC/m2/year than land at 120gC/m2/yr.

False

Which of the following is NOT one of the four factors that influence primary production?

Heterotrophs

Which of the four factors that influence primary production are limiting in the oceanic environment?

Inorganic Nutrients
Sunlight

A trophic pyramid describes who eats whom, and in general, from one level to the next, what percentage is transferred?

10%

Which of the following elements are found in all organic molecules?

Carbon

t/f Primary production varies with latitude and with season.

True

What is plankton?

A drifting organism

What connects all plankton?

Ecological lifestyle

Why are phytoplankton critical for marine life?

They are large contribution to marine food webs
They generate massive amounts of atmospheric oxygen
They are able to bind billions of tons of carbon into carbohydrates

Which plankton are considered microplankton?

Dinoflagellates

What is the smallest form of plankton and includes most viruses?

Femtoplankton

What planktonic group accounts for 80% of all photosynthesis in the tropics?

Picoplankton

What is a frustule?

The rigid cell wall of a diatom

What allows diatoms to expand in size during reproduction?

Auxospore

What is usually the culprit for a harmful algal bloom known as red tides?

Dinoflagellates

A highly biological productive ocean surface appears chalky due to the calcium carbonate cell walls. This is due to the successful bloom of what plankton ?

Coccolithophores

What is essential in the restoration of nonconservative nutrients and supports the continuation of photosynthetic productivity in the ocean?

Upwelling

What factor(s) limit primary productivity in the ocean?

Angle of the sun
Turbidity
Surface turbulence

What is true of compensation depth?

It is the depth at which carbohydrate and oxygen production equals the amount of consumption
It marks the bottom of the euphotic zone

What kind of plankton remains planktonic for its entire life?

Holoplankton

What kind of plankton remains planktonic for only part of its life?

Meroplankton

t/f There are plankton in every major group of animals.

True

t/f Approximately 55% of the sunlight energy absorbed by diatoms is converted into energy for carbohydrate chemical bonds.

True

t/f Coccolithophores are able to utilize more frequencies of light so they can be deeper in the euphotic zone and need less light.

False

t/f Nearshore productivity is almost always more productive than open ocean productivity.

True

t/f Seaweeds are not a type of plant.

True

t/f Seaweeds or multicellular algae have vascular tissues

False

Seaweeds do NOT have:

leaves

Low, muddy coasts in tropical and some subtropical areas are often home to tangled masses of:

trees called mangroves

Seaweeds are classified by:

their photosynthetic pigments

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set