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The study of human development is

the science that seeks to unsterstand how and why people change, and why they remain the same, as they grow older.

Five distinct characteristics of development within the Life Span Perspective

Multidirectional, multicultural, multicontextual, multidisciplinary, and plastic

Macrosystem

Inclues cultural values, polictical philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions

Butterfly effect

Small change has large potential power

Cohort

A group of people whose shared age means that they travel through life together.

Social construction

an idea built more on the shared perceptions of society than on objective reality

Is race and ethnicity the same thing?

NO!

Ethic identity

Not primarily genetic, it is a product of the social environment and the individuals consciousness.

REPLICATION of research findings verifies the findings and leads researchers to more definitive and extensive conclusions.

In replicating researchm scientists use a different but related set of SUBJECTS. Repeating in order to achieve the same results.

Longitudinal Research

A research design in which the same people are studied over a long time (which mught range from months to decades) to measure both change and stability as they age.

Developmental research

A systematic set of principles and generalizations that explains development, generates hypotheses, and provides a framework for future research.

Is is the purpose of developmental theories to provide solutions to most major developmental problem?

No, it is not.

Erikson emphasized each _________________________ and the importance of family and cultural influcences in determining how well prepared individuals are to meet these crises.

person's relationships to the social environment

Assimilation

Reinterpreting new experinces so that they fit into, or assimilate with, the old ideas.

Accommodation

Revamping old ideas so that they can accommodate the new.

Epigenetic systems theory

emphasizes the interaction between genes and the environment.

DNA

Molecular basis of heredity that is constructed as a double helix.

Every human body cell, except the sperm and ovum, has ___ pairs of chromosomes. (one chomosome in each pair from each parent)

23

XY is

male.

XX is

female

Which pair of chromosome determines the sex?

23rd pair

The critical factor in the determination of the zygote's sex is

which sperm reaches the ovum first.

Genotype

refers to the sum total of all the genes a person inherits. (both expreses and hidden genes)

All of the following is true aboue genotypes!

Many behavior patterns can be caused by more than one genotype; Many genotypes can result in more than one phenotype; Genetic origins of behavior patterns do not imply that it is fixed or ualterable.

Phenotype

refers to the sum total of all the genes that are actually expressed. (expressed or observable)

dominant genes

genes that have a controlling influence over weaker, recessive genes.

Age of of viability (brain maturation)

begins at about 22 weeks

Viability =

Possibility

Age of viability

the age (22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus can survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.

What slows fetal growth more than marijuana, cocaine, or alcohol; and is the most prevalent psychoactive drug?

tobacco

Teratogens

Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, chemucaks, stressors, malnutrution, that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death.

Teratology

the scientific study of birth defects or, the science if risk analysis, which attempts to evaluate what factors can make prenatal harm more, or less, likely to occur.

Apgar scale

Used to assign a score of between 0 and 2 to the newborn's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes at 1 minutes after birth and again at 5 minutes.

Inadequacy

means that she questions her ability to take care of the infant

The average north american newborn

Measures about 20 inches and weighs about 7 pounds

By age 2

weight averages 30 pundsm or nearly 1/5 if adult weughtm body length ranges from 32 to 36 inches, or about one half of adult height

Reflex

an involuntary response to a stimulus

pruning

the process by which underused neurons are inactivated

frontal cortex

assist in self control and self regualtion, is immature in the newborn

Head sparing

the biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth

The fine tuning process of the human brain implies that

stimulation helps neural connections develop.

Newborns focus most readily on objects between 4 to 30 inches away. (20/400 vision)

By 12 months visual acuity reaches 20/20.

Protein-calorie malnutrition

The most serious nutritional problem of infancy

Breast milk

the ideal food for most babies, it is sterile and at body temp it contains more essential vitamins and iron that cow's or goat's milk; it is more digestible; it provides the infant with immunity to any disease the mother has already had or been inoculated against; and it decrease the frequency of almost every other common infant ailment

Habituation

getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure

affordance

refers to each of the various opportunities for perception, action, and interaction that an object or place offers to any individual

visual cliff

an apparent, but not actual drop between two surfaces

Object performance

a major cognitive accomplishment of infancy is the ability to understand that objects exist independently of ones perception of them.

Even a 3 month infant

notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent drop off

Piaget

A swiss biologist who emphasized that infants are active leanrers and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills

Piagetls theory of development focused primarily on

how our thinking changes as we get older.

Paiget's step one:

reflexes; The newborns reflexes, such as sucking, grasping, staring, and listening, represent its only ways of gaining knowledge about the world. The newbornls first sensory motor activites are reflexes!!

Adaptation occurs in two ways

Assimilation and accommodation, of exsisting shemas to fit new information

little scientist

Paiget's term for the stage 5 toddler who actively experiments to learn about the properties of objects,

Over generalization

calling all round things balls, and four legged things dogs.

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