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Dra. Annabel Varela's Class

which of the following is not a function of the nervous system?

A) sense the internal and external environments
B) integrate sensory information
C) coordinate voluntary and involuntary activities
D) direct long-term functions, such as growth
E) congtrol perpheral effectors

direct long-term functions, such as growth

the _______ nevous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

a) autonomic
b) peripheral
c) central
d) efferent
e) afferent

central

the ______ nervous system controls the skeletal muscle.

a) sympathetic
b) parasympathetic
c) afferent
d) somatic
e) autonomic

somatic

the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated

a) motor
b) afferent
c) efferent
d) autonomic
e) somatic

afferent

which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia?

a) support
b) memory
c) secretion of cerebospinal fluid
d) maintenace of blood-brain barrier
e) phagocytosis

memory

which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system?

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

satellite cells

the largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

astrocytes

functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except

a) maintaining the blood-brain barrier
b) conducting action potentials
c) guiding neuron development
d) responding to neural tissue damage
e) forming a three-dimensional framework for the CNS

conducting action potentials

the myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

oligodendrocytes

_______ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

ependymal cells

small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

microglia

the neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) schwann cells

schwann cells

glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c. oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

satellite cells

which of the following is not a recognized structural classification for neurons?

a) anaxonic
b) bipolar
c) multipolar
d) pseudopolar
e) unipolar

pseudopolar

the most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is

a) anaxonic
b) bipolar
c)multipolar
d) pseudopolar
e) unipolar

multipolar

the cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of neuron is called the

a) protoplasm
b) nucleoplasm
c) sacroplasm
d)neuroplasm
e) perikaryon

perikaryon

clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called

a) neurofilaments
b) neurofibrils
c) perikaryon
d) nissl bodies
e) microglia

nissl bodies

the axon is connected to the soma at the

a) telodendria
b) synaptic knobs
c) collaterals
d) axon hillock
e) synapse

axon hillock

Branches that may occur along an axon are called

a) telodendria
b) synaptic knobs
c) collaterals
d) hillocks
e synapses

collaterals

axons terminate in a series of fine extensions know as

a) telodendria
b) knobs
c) collaterals
d) dendrites
e) synapses

telodendria

Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic

a) telodendria
b) knobs
c) vesicles
d) mitochondria
e) neurosomes

vesicles

the site of intercellular communication between neurons is the

a) telodendria
b) synaptic knob
c) collateral
d) hillock
e) synapse

synapse

the rabies virus travels to the CNS via

a) anterograde axoplasmic transport
b) retrograde axoplasmic transport
c) blood vessels
d) subcutaneous connective tissue
e) cerebrospinal fluid

retrograde axoplasmic transport

neurons that are rare,small,and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axon are called

a) anaxonic
b) unipolar
c) bipolar
c)tripolar
e) multipolar

anaxonic

neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called

a) anaxonic
b) unipolar
c)bipolar
d) tripolar
e) multipolar

unipolar

neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between are called

a) anaxonic
b) unipolar
c) bipolar
d) tripolar
e) multipolar

bipolar

neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called

a) anaxonic
b) unipolar
c) bipolar
d) tripolar
e)multipolar

multipolar

sensory neurons of the PNS are

a) unipolar
b) bipolar
c) anaxonic
d) multipolar
e) tripolar

unipolar

which of the following activities or sensations is not monitored by interocepters?

a) sight
b) taste
c) activities of the digestive system
d) cardiovascular activities
e) urinary activites

sight

_____ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that distinguish dendrites from axons.

a) multipolar
b) anaxonic
c) unipolar
d) bipolar
e) none of the above

anaxonic

_______ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs.

a) multipolar
b) anaxonic
c) unipolar
d) bipolar
e) none of the above

bipolar

in a(n) ________ neuron, the dendrites and axon are continuous or fused.

a) multipolar
b) anaxonic
c) unipolar
d) bipolar
e) none of the above

unipolar

______ neurons are the most common in the CNS.

a) Mutlipolar
b) anaxonic
c) unipolar
d) bipolar
e) none of the above

multipolar

_____ neurons form the afferent division of the PNS

a) visceral sensory
b) sensory
c) neural sensory
d) somatic sensory
e) none of the above

sensory

______ are the most numerous type of neuron in the CNS

a) sensory neurons
b) motor neurons
c) unipolar neurons
d)bipolar neurons
e) interneurons

interneurons

which of the following are types of neuroglia

a) ependymal cells
b) microglia
c) astrocytes
d) oligodendrocytes
e) all of the above

all of the above

_____ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system.

a) axons
b) dendrites
c)neuroglia
d) synapses
e) efferent fibers

neuroglia

which of the following are properties of cerebrospinal fluid?

a) surrounds the brain and spinal cord
b) fills the brain ventricles
c) transports nutrients
d) circulates continuously
e) all of the above

all of the above

the function of the astrocytes in the CNS includes which of the following?
a) adjusting the composition of the interstitial fluid

b) guiding neuron development
c) maintaining the blood-brain barrier
d) repairing damaged neural tissue
e) all of the above

all of the above

the largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS are the

a) astrocytes
b) ependymal cells
c) microglia
d) ogliodendrocytes
e) none of the above

astrocytes

the smallest neuroglia of the CNS are the

a) astrocytes
b) ependymal cells
c) microglia
d) oligodendrocytes
e) none of the above

microglia

after a stroke, what type of glial cell accumlates within the affected brain region?

a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells
c) oligodendrocytes
d) microglia
e) ependymal cells

microglia

the spinal cord is part of the

a) peripheral nervous system
b) somatic nervous system
c) central nervous system
d) autonomic nervous system
e) afferent nervous system

central nervous system

the ______ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

a) conus medullaris
b) filum terminale
c) cauda equina
d) dorsal root
e) ventral root

filum terminale

spinal nerves are

a) purely sensory
b)purely motor
c) both sensory and motor
d) interneuronal
e) involuntary

both sensory and motor

the spinal cord consist of five regions and ____ segments

a) 5
b) 12
c) 25
d) 31
e) the number varies widely among individuals

31

the dorsal root ganglia mainly contain

a) axons of motor neurons
b) axons of sensory neurons
c) cell bodies of motor neurons
d) cell bodies of sensory neurons
e) synapses

cell bodies of sensory neurons

the dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

a) axons of motor neurons
b) axons of sensory neurons
c) cell bodies of motor neurons
d) cell bodies of sensory neurons
e) interneurons

axon of sensory neurons

the ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

a) axons of motor neurons
b) axons of sensory neurons
c) cell bodies of motor neurons
d) cell bodies of sensory neurons
e) interneurons

axons of motor neurons

the tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

a) arachnoid
b) pia mater
c) dura mater
d) epidural block
e) periosteum

dura mater

after age ______ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not

a) 8
b)12
c) 18
d) 4
e) 1

4

if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed

a) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked
b) output to visceral organs would be blocked
c) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level
d) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.
e) sensory input would be blocked

sensory input would be blocked

the subdural space lies between

a) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
b) the pia mater and the dura mater
c) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
d) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space
e)the endosteum and the periosteum

the dura mater and arachnoid mater

the layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the

a) dura mater
b) subarachnoid space
c) arachnoid
d) pia mater
e) choroid plexus

pia mater

a dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

a) cervical enlargement
b) lumbar enlargement
c) spinal nerve
d) spinal meninx
e) spinal ganglion

spinal nerve

in meningitis

a) inflammation of the meninges occurs
b) bacteria can be the cause
c) viruses can be the cause
d) CSF flow can be disrupted
e) all of the answers are correct

all answers are correct

which of the following is true regarding an epidural block

a) it is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery
b) it affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection
c) it can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected
d) it can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected
e) all of the answers are correct

all answers are correct

cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

a) filum terminal
b) subarachnoid space
c) dura mater
d) pia mater
e) arachnoid mater

arachnoid mater

the spinal cord continues to elongate until about age

a) 20 years
b) 10 years
c) 4 years
d) 6 months
e) 2 months

4 years

the specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the

a) cranial meninges
b) cranial mater
c) spinal meninges
d) spinal mater
e)epidural membranes

spinal meninges

blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the

a) pia mater
b) dura mater
c) epidural space
d) subdural space
e) subarachnoid space

pia mater

samples of CSF for diagnostic purpose are normally obtained by place the tip of a needle in the

a) dura mater
b) arachnoid mater
c) epidural space
d) subarachnoid space
e) cerebral ventrices

subarachnoid space

in an adult, the conus medullaries is found at about

L1

bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you except?

a) loss of sensation in his torso
b)inability to breath
c) problems with moving his arms
d) uncontrollable sweating of his feet
e) problems with moving his legs

loss of sensation in his torso

the white matter of the spinal cord is mainly

a) unmyelinated axons
b) neuroglia
c) schwann cells
d) myelinated and unmyelinated axons
e) nodes of Ranvier

myelinated and unmyelinated axons

the gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

a) nerve tracts
b) columns
c) meninges
d) nerve cell bodies
e) funiculi

nerve cell bodies

the posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

a) sensory nuclei
b) somatic motor nuclei
c) autonomic motor nuclei
d) nerve tracts
e) sympathetic nuclei

sensory nuclei

the anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

a) sensory nuclei
b) somatic motor nuclei
c) autonomic motor nuclei
d) nerve tracts
e) sympathetic nuclei

somatic motor nuclei

nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the

a) central canal
b) posterior gray horns
c) gray commissures
d) white columns
e) anterior gray horns

white columns

the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized

a) nuclei
b)ganglia
c) columns
d) nervers
e) horns

columns

the outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called

a) wings
b) horns
c) pyramids
d) fibers
e) tracts

horns

axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the

a) anterior gray horns
b) lateral gray horns
c) posterior gray horns
d) gray commissures
e) white commissures

gray commissures

the white matter of the spinal cord contains

a) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions
b) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions
c) sensory and motor nuclei
d) both axon and dendrites
e) interneurons

bundles of axons with common

use image to answer questions 75-82

identify the structure labeled "1. "

a) anterior white column
b) lateral white column
c) lateral white horn
d) median commissure
e) posterior white column

posterior white column

identify the structure labeled "4."

a) posterior gray column
b) dorsal gray ganglion
c) posterior white column
d) posterior gray horn
e) anterior gray horn

posterior gray horn

identify the structure labeled "10."

a) anterior white commissure
b) anterior medium fissure
c) anterior white column
d) anterior gray commissure
e) anterior white horn

anterior gray commissure

what is the function of the structure labeled 12"

a) control of skeletal muscle
b) somatic sensory receiving
c) visceral sensory receiving
d) control of visceral effectors
e) ascending pathway

somatic sensory receiving

what is the function of the structure labeled 14

a) control of skeletal muscle
b) somatic sensory processing
c) control of visceral effectors
d) somatic motor control
e) visceral sensory processing

control of visceral effectors

where do somatic motor neurons reside

a)10
b)12
c)13
d)14
e)15

15

where are the white columns of the spinal cord?

a)4,5,6
b) 1,2,3
c) 7,11
d)12,13
e) 8

8

the outermost connective-tissue coveing of nerves is the

a) endoneurium
b) endomysium
c) perineurium
d)epineurium
e) epimysium

epineurium

which of these is not one of the main division of the adult brain?

a) cerebrum
b) diencephalon
c)prosencephalon
d)midbrain
e) pons

prosencephalon

which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?

a) medulla oblongata
b)pons
c) mesencephalon
d) diencephalon
e) cerebellum

diencephalon

the floor of the diencephalon is formed by the

a)hypothalamus
b) thalamus
c)brain stem
d)mesencephalon
e) myelencephalon

hypothalamus

the tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the

a) medulla oblongata
b) pons
c) mesencephalon
d) diencephalon
e) thalamus

pons

autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

a) medulla oblongata
b) pons
c) mesencephalon
d) diencephalon
e) cerebellum

medulla oblongata

the cerebellum and pons develop from the

a) telencephalon
b) diencephalon
c) mesencephalon
d)metencephalon
e) myelencephalon

metencephalon

sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the

A) medulla oblongata
b) pons
c)midbrain
d) thalamus
e) cerebellum

thalamus

a neural coretx is found on the surface of the

a) cerebrum
b) pons
c) thalamus
d) midbrain
e) pons

cerebrum

As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the function of each successive level become

a) more complex
b) simpler
c) better understood
e) more crucial to visceral functions
e) critical to reflexes

more complex

the ____ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems

a) cerebellum
b) medulla oblongata
c) cerebrum
d) pons
e) hypothalamus

hypothalamus

the thin partition that separates the first and second ventricles is the

a) falx cerebri
b) septum pellucidum
c) septum insula
d) interventricular foramina
e) cerebral aqueduct

septum pellucidum

Answers question 94-102 from figure of brain

indentify the structure labeled "1"

a) choroid plexus
b) cerebral aqueduct
c) third ventricle
d) subarachnoid space
e) corpus callosum

choroid plexus

what is produced by the structure labeled "2"?

a) cerebrospinal fluid
b) neurotrasmitters
c) white matter
d) hormones
e) red blood cells

cerebrospinal fluid

identify the structure labeled "3"?

a) arbor vitae
b)corpora quadrigemina
c)aqueduct of midbrain
d) pons
e)diencephalon

aqueduct of midbrain

identify the structure labeled "6"?

a) choroid plexus
b) fourth ventricle
c) lateral ventricle
d) cerebral aqueduct
e) subarachnoid space

subarachnoid space

identify the structure labeled "7?"

a) dura mater
b) lateral ventricle
c)fourth ventricle
d) subarachnoid space
e) filum terminale

dura mater

identify the stucture labeled "9."

a) dura mater
b) superior sagittal sinus
c) lateral ventricle
d) subarachnoid space
e) arachnoid granulation

superior sagittal sinus

identify the structure labeled "10."

a) arbor vitae
b) central canal
c) corpus callosum
d)pons
e) diencephalon

central canal

the control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the

a) cerebrum
b) cerebullum
c) diencephalon
d) medulla oblongata
e) heart

medulla oblongata

the medulla oblongata regulates

a) somatic motor contractions
b) food intake
c) auditory reflexes
d) vision and hearing
e) blood pressure and respiration

blood pressure and respiration

there are ______ pairs of cranial nerves

a) 2
b) 6
c) 12
d) 22
e) 31

12

droopy eyelids and double vision can result from injury to the ______nerve

a) optic
b) oculomotor
c) trochlear
d) olfactory
e) abducens

oculomtor

the cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are

a) I,II and III
b) III, IV, and VI
c) II,III and IV
d) II and VI
e) III and V

III, IV, and VI

the cranial nerve that has three major branches is the

a) abducens
b) facial
c)vagus
d)trigenminal
e) glossopharyngeal

trigeminal

which sensation(s) does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry?

a) hearing
b) equilibrium
c) atmospheric pressure
d) hearing and equilibrium
e) hearing, equilibrium and taste

hearing and equilibrium

Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?

a) trochlear
b)trigeminal
c) facial
d) glossopharyngeal
e) hypoglossal

trigeminal

You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to

a) smell his food
b) smile
c) blink his eyes
d) nod his head
e) hear your voice

smell his food

Olfactory receptors send axon through the cribiform plate and synapse on neurons in the

a) medulla
b)thalamus
c) cerebral cortex
d) olfactory bulb
e) olfactory tract

olfactory bulb

at the optic chiasm

a) axon from the nasal halves of each retina cross
b)axons from the temporal halves of each retina cross
c) axons from the retinae synapse on those from the other half
d) the olfactory nerve crosses to the opposite side of the brain
e) the optic nerve enters the cerebellum

axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross

A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?

a) glossopharyngeal
b) hypoglossal
c)vagus
d) spinal accessory
e) trigeminal

hypglossal

question 115-123 based of diagram

inferior view cranial nerves

identify the structure labeled "8"

a) mamillary body
b) infundibulum
c) oculomotor nerve
d)olfactory bulb
e) optic chiasm

optic chiasm

identify the structure labeled "9"

a) olfactory bulb
b) optic chiasm
c) oculomotor nerve
d) infundibulum
e) mamillary body

infundibulum

identify the nerve labeled "3"

a) facial
b)abducens
c) trochlear
d)trigeminal
e)vagus

abducens

what is the function of the nerve labeled "4"

a) vision
b)olfaction
c) taste
d) hearing and balance
e) eye movement

hearing and balance

what is the function of the structure labeled "5"

a) movement of the tongue
b) facial expression
c)vision
d) taste
e) visceral sensation and motor control

visceral sensation and motor control

what is the function of the structure labeled "7"

a) vision
b)olfaction
c) taste
d) auditory
e)eye movement

olfaction

what is the function of the nerve labeled "10"?

a) vision
b)olfaction
c)taste
d)auditory
e)eye movement

eye movement

identify the nerve labeled "11"

a)oculomotor
b)trigeminal
c)trochlear
d)abducens
e)optic

trigeminal

Identify the nerve labeled "12"

a) trochlear
b)trigeminal
c)facial
d)abducens
e) vagus

facial

the term general senses refers to sensitivity to all the following,except

a) temperature
b) taste
c) touch
d) vibration
e)pain

taste

which of the following is not one of the special senses?

a) hearing
b) smell
c) taste
d) vibration
e) vision

vibration

Receptors that monitors the position of joints belong to the category called

a) nociceptors
b) chemoreceptors
c) baroreceptors
d) proprioceptors
e) thermoreceptors

proprioceptors

mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

a) nonciceptors
b)baroreceptors
c)chemoreceptors
d)proprioceptors
e) thermoreceptors

baroreceptors

tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called

a) ruffini corpuscles
b)lamellated corpuscles
c)tactile (messner) corpuscles
d) tactile discs
e) root hair plexuses

ruffini corpuscles

a tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a

a) lamellated corpuscle
b) ruffini corpuscle
c)tactile (Messiner) corpuscle
d) tactile (merkel) disc
e) root hair plexus

tactile (Messiner) corpuscle

Pain is to ____as cold is to______

a) nociceptors; thermoreceptors
b) baroreceptors ;chemoreceptors
c)baroreceptors; nociceptors
d) chemoreceptors; nociceptors
e) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors

nociceptors; thermoreceptors

______ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure

a) chemoreceptors
b)nociceptors
c)baroreceptors
d)proprioceptors
e)hair cells

baroreceptors

from 134 to 137 questions regarding eye diagram

identify the space labeled "1"
.
a) posterior cavity
b) posterior chamber
c) pupil
d) anterior chamber
e) vitreous chamber

anterior chamber

identify the structure labeled "7"

a) choroid
b) optic disc
c) sclera
d) retina
e) cornea

cornea

identify the structure labeled "9"

a) suspensory ligaments
b)optic disc
c) sclera
d) fovea
e)pupil

suspensory ligaments

identify the structure labeled "12"

a) pupil
b) optic disc
c) sclera
d) fovea
e) retina

retina

identify the structure labeled "14"

a) pupil
b) optic disc
c)scelra
d)fovea
e) suspensory ligaments

fovea

from 140 to 144 questions on ear diagram

identify the structures labeled "8"

a) cochlea
b) auditory ossicles
c) auricle
d) tympanic membrane
e) vestibule

auditory ossicles

which structure contains the receptors for hearing

a) 6
b) 8
c) 9
d) 10
e) 11

number 11 --- cochlea

which structure is known as the vestibule?

a) 6
b) 8
c) 9
d)10
e) 11

number 6

identify the structure labeled "3"

a) cochlea
b) semicircular canals
c) auricle
d) tympanic membrane
e) vestibule

tympanic membrane

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