Nutrition

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Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as

phytochemicals

How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (liter) of water 1° C? 1 kilocalorie

1 kilocalorie

The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally .

designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people

What are the principles of diet planning? .

Adequacy, balance, kilocalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety

After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in foods? Proteases

Proteases

A friend is talking to you about his new dietary supplement. He says that the sales representative told him it contains enzymes that will make him healthier, and he asks for your opinion. You explain to him that the enzymes

are proteins and proteins are destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract.

The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can attack the fat is known as

emulsification.

Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose? Glucose

Glucose

What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?

Fructose

Which of the following is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?

Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes.

What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate needed to prevent ketosis?

50-100 g

You have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly. Which of the following series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?

Blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline, the pancreas releases glucagon, glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood, blood glucose rises.

Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

double bonds

Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following except

products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.

All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except

palm oil

An important function of fat in the body is to

protect vital organs against shock

Your uncle has just come back from the doctor where he had a blood lipid profile analysis. The doctor provided him with dietary changes because the cholesterol results put him at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Which of the following results is consistent with the diagnosis?

Low HDL and high LDL cholesterol

Studies show that regular consumption of fatty fish leads to

lower blood pressure.

Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?

It must be supplied by the diet.

What process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?

Denaturation

What is the fate of excess dietary protein?

After absorption, the extra amino acids will be rapidly degraded.

You are reading a case study from a researcher at World University. The researcher has traveled to the largest city in India and is reporting on an illness present in a 15-month-old boy. The researcher described the child as extremely thin and bony, with wrinkled skin and enlarged fatty liver. For the past year, this child has subsisted almost entirely on diluted cereal drink. Your first thought is that all of these observations are characteristic of marasmus except for the

enlarged fatty liver.

Which of the following describes a relationship between protein intake and calcium metabolism?

Calcium excretion rises with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins.

What is the daily protein intake, in g/kg of healthy body weight, recommended for adults?

0.8

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?

It stimulates appetite and energy storage

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure.

Which of the following is a feature of the body's response to engaging in physical activity?

After an intense and vigorous workout, metabolism remains elevated for several hours.

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

Pellagra

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

vitamin B6.

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis.

Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?

Act as anti-oxidants.

Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition?

Sweet potato

The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced

milk intake of older people.

Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings her baby home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, her baby received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explain that it

prevented possible bleeding events.

Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?

Source of energy

When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?

Sodium and chloride

Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?

Blood pressure increases as salt intake rises

All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except

processed foods are a major source.

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except

lactose in the diet.

All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except

being of African- American decent.

A measure of the amount at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed

bioavailability.

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron absorption?

Absorption of heme iron is about 50% higher than nonheme iron.

Which of the following represents the order of the stages of iron deficiency?

Iron stores decline - iron transport diminishes - hemoglobin synthesis falls.

Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except

galvanized liver and kidneys

To lower a high blood cholesterol level, all of the following are recommended except

decrease the carbohydrate intake to <50% of total energy.

Which of the following is not among the recommendations by health professionals to treat hypertension?

Decrease intake of dairy products to avoid sodium.

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