PSY 2012 - Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide

Cognitive psychology focuses on ___________________.

Mental processes such as thinking, perception, and information processing

In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new "memory" drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the ______________would be the independent variable (IV), and the __________would be the dependent variable (DV).

exposure to the drug; quiz scores

The term basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.

advances scientific knowledge

The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.

Behavioral perspective.

Salary and years of education are ____________ correlated, and grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are ______________ correlated.

positively; negatively

The idea that depression is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.

biopsychosocial

Sociocultural psychology is the study of the ______________________.

influence of culture and social interactions on people's behavior

The father of psychology is ________.

Wilhelm Wundt

Structuralism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ________________.

Established a model for the scientific study of mental processes.

The cerebral cortex consists of the

frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

Three structures associated with the brain stem are the _____.

pons, medulla, and the midbrain

Three structures included in the hindbrain are the:

medulla, pons, and cerebellum

The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all parts of the _____.

limbic system

A collection of glands found throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to effect behavioral change or maintain normal bodily functions is called the____________________

endocrine system

The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the _____.

neurons

The branches of the neuron that receive neural impulses from other neurons are called _____, and the tube-like structure that conveys impulses toward other neurons is called the _____.

dendrites; axon

An impulse travels through the structures of the neuron in the following order:

dendrites, cell body, axon

A mental state other than an ordinary waking state, in which there are distinct changes in perception, emotion, memory, thinking, etc. is called alternate _____.

states of consciousness

Circadian rhythms are _____.

biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle

Just before sleep, brain waves move from _____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to _____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.

beta; alpha

Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of sleep stages?
A. non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4 - REM
B. hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4 - REM - Stages 4-3-2-1
C. hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM
D. non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM

C. hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 - REM

_____ act on the CNS to suppress or slow bodily processes and reduce overall responsiveness.

Depressants

REM sleep is also called _____ because the brain is aroused and active while the person remains nonresponsive and asleep.

paradoxical sleep

hich of the following persons is clearly experiencing chronic insomnia?
A. Kipp frequently cannot fall asleep the night before a final exam.
B. Kaula regularly sleeps around 7 hours per night.
C. Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep.
D. Jorge wakes up throughout the night because his neighbors make so much noise.

C. Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep.

Irvings's doctor prescribed Valium to help him cope with job-related anxiety. He found a less stressful job, and is anxiety-free. However, Irving keeps taking Valium because he likes its effects. He hasn't had to increase the dosage, and he did not have withdrawal symptoms when he forgot to take his pills. It is MOST likely that Irving is_____________.

psychologically dependent on Valium

The process of detecting, converting, and transmitting sensory information to your brain is called__________, and the process of interpreting and giving that information meaning is called _____________.

sensation; perception

The physical senses include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. olfaction
B. transduction
C. gustation
D. audition

B. transduction

Eli's grandma gives him a Tootsie Roll every time she visits. After enough times of receiving a Tootsie Roll, Eli's mouth begins to water when he sees his grandma arriving. In this example of classical conditioning, the Tootsie Roll is the __________________, and the mouthwatering reaction is the __________________________.

unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

Your dog is begging for food while you eat dinner. Your Mother gives him a morsel from her plate, and he stops barking. In this situation, your dog has been _____________, and you Mother has been ________________.

positively reinforced; negatively reinforced

Problem-solving is the act of moving _____.

from a given state to a goal state

Mental representations of previously stored sensory experiences are called _____.

mental images

Simple rules used in problem-solving that do not guarantee a solution, but offer a likely short-cut to it are called _____.

heuristics

Judging the likelihood or probability of events based on how easily other such events can be recalled is known as the _____ heuristic.

availability

__________is measured by the capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.

Intelligence

Mental retardation applies to an individual with significant deficits in adaptive functioning and a score below _____ on a standard IQ test.

70

Every time you use information and engage in mental activity such as forming ideas, reasoning, solving problems, drawing conclusions, expressing thoughts, or comprehending the thoughts of others, you are thinking. Mental activity or thinking is also known as:

Cognition

This is the first stage of prenatal development (from conception to implantation) characterized by rapid cell division.

germinal period

The four stages of Piaget's cognitive development model are _________________.

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

Amelia, who is 72, is looking back at the last few decades of her life and feeling deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Amelia is in which of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?

integrity vs. despair

_______ attention improves encoding whereas ______ attention interferes with encoding.

selective; divided

In the three-stage memory model,what is the CORRECT memory pathway?

sensory memory - STM - LTM

In sensory memory, the approximate duration of a visual image is about _____, and the approximate duration of auditory echoic memory is up to _____.

1/2 second; 2-4 seconds

Short-term memory receives information from _____ memory.

sensory and long-term

According to the serial position effect, to increase the chance that you will be remembered by your host when introduced at a crowded party, you should try to be introduced _____.

either first or last

Cramming is another term for _____, which is an inefficient form of studying.

massed practice

According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, if you haven't eaten all day, your thoughts will be MOST focused on your____________

physiological needs

Knowing and managing one's emotions, empathizing with others, and maintaining satisfying relationships are the key factors in _____.

emotional intelligence

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, expressing an emotion should ______.

intensify it

An individual's relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as his or her _____.

personality

The trait theory that explains personality in terms of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism is called the _____.

Five-Factor model

According to Freud, the three mental structures that form personality are the _____.

id, ego, and superego

The rational part of the psyche that deals with reality and tries to meet the needs of the other two mental structures is called the _____.

ego

Defense mechanisms are _____ strategies employed by the ego to reduce anxiety and avoid conflict.

unconscious

The first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness, is called _____.

repression

Pedro was just diagnosed with testicular cancer. Rather than deal with his feelings about this, he searches the Internet for information, academically discusses the disorder with his family and friends, and endlessly debates the pros and cons of treatment with his doctor. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

intellectualization

This is NOT a cause of mental illness.

personal weakness

This has NOT been used as an approach to defining abnormal behavior.

medical school consensus

Frances was diagnosed with a mental illness because she lost her job when she tested positive for marijuana use at a company that requires frequent random drug testing. This is an example of the _____ approach to defining abnormal behavior.

personal dysfunction or distress

In early therapy of abnormal behavior, _____ was used to allow evil spirits to escape, while _____ was designed to make the body so uncomfortable it would be uninhabitable to the devil.

trephining; exorcism

The classification system produced by the American Psychiatric Association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the DSM-IV-TR. DSM is an abbreviation for _____.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to provide ____.

descriptions of disorders

_____ is a legal term for people with a mental disorder that implies a lack of responsibility for their behavior and an inability to manage their affairs.

Insanity

Anxiety disorders are _____.

characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

Chronic, uncontrollable, excessive worrying about nothing in particular is associated with _____.

generalized anxiety disorder

The two main types of mood disorders are _____.

major depression and bipolar disorder

All of the following are types of anxiety disorders EXCEPT:
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. panic disorder
C. phobias
D. bipolar disorder

D. bipolar disorder

Seligman found that when faced with a painful situation from which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation. He called this _____.

learned helplessness

Hans Selye defined stress as

the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it

In your text, the physical and mental arousal to situations that we perceive as threatening or challenging is called _____.

distress

The end result of a total absence of stress is _____.

death

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress in a person's life on the basis of _____.

life changes

The body's immediate fight-or-flight response is facilitated by the _______ system(s).

SAM

The General Adaptation Syndrome indicates that we experience a biological reaction to stress, which occurs in three phases. The first phase is our initial response to a stressor. In the second phase we expend considerable energy to adapt to the stressor. And lastly, if the stressor is prolonged, it will likely result in us feeling depleted of energy, and increase our risk of becoming susceptible to serious illnesses. Identify below the correct order of the three phases:

alarm reaction; resistance; exhaustion

All of the following are effective strategies for stress management EXCEPT:
A. exercise
B. seek social support from family and friends
C. smoke cigarette
D. engage in relaxation techniques such as meditation

C. smoke cigarette

Cognitive therapist assume that problem behaviors and emotions are caused by________________

faulty or distorted thought processes and/or irrational beliefs

Psychotherapy is defined in your text as the various methods of therapy that _____.

aim to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life

Using therapeutic techniques to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life is known as _____.

psychotherapy

If a patient falls in love with his therapist, this is likely a result of _____; if the therapist acts on this by entering a romantic or sexual relationship with the client this is considered _____.

transference; unethical and possibly illegal

The process by which the therapist and client work to change destructive ways of thinking is called _____.

cognitive restructuring

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